Government Vocab Fairfield High

Updated: 4/28/2022
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Ch. 18-21 VocabBrock Bechtel

1. inferior courts- the lower federal courts, those beneath the Supreme Court.

2. jurisdiction- the authority of a court to hear a case.

3. exclusive jurisdiction- cases can be heard only in the federal courts.

4. concurrent jurisdiction- they share the power to hear those cases.

5. plaintiff- the person who files suit.

6. defendant- the person whom the complaint is against.

7. original jurisdiction- having the first ability to hear the case.

8. appellate jurisdiction- the higher jurisdiction.

9. criminal case- a case inwhich a defendant is tried for committing a federal crime.

10. civil cases- a case over infringment.

11. docket- list of cases to be heard.

12. writ of certiorari- order by court directing a lower court to send up the case's record.

13. certificate- when a lower court is not clear about the procedure.

14. majority opinion- the Court's opinion

15. precedents- examples to be followed in similar cases.

16. concurring opinion- to add or emphasize a point that was not made in the maj. opinion.

17. dissenting opinions- written by those justices who don't agree with maj. decision.

18. redress- satisfaction of a claim

19. court-martial- military courts.

20. civilian tribunal- court operating as part of the judicial branch, separate from military branch.

21. Bill of Rights- 1st 10 Amendments to the Const.

22. civil liberties- protections against gov't.

23. civil rights- positive acts of gov't that seek to make constitutional guarantees.

24. alien- non-citizens of the country they live in.

25. Due Process Clause- in the 14th Amendment.

26. process of incorporation- process of including guarantess in the Bill of Rights.

27. Establishment Clause- establishment of religion.

28. parochial- church-related

29. Free Exercise Clause- guarantess the right to each person the right to believe what he/she chooses.

30. libel- false and malicious use of printed words.

31. slander- false and malicious use of spoken words.

32. sedition- crime of attempting to overthrow the gov't by force.

33. seditious speech- advocating or urging of it.

34. prior restraint- has almost no exceptions

35. shield law- give reporters some protections for their sources

36. symbolic speech- talking with your body suggestions

37. picketing- patrolling of a business site by workers who are on strike.

38. assemble- to gather with one another.

39. content neutral- cannot regulate assemblies on the basis of what is said there.

40. right of association- allow people to gather toghether for protest.

41. due process- should be used

42. substantive due process- should be substantive used.

43. procedural due process- how of gov't action.

44. police power- authority of speech to protect.

45. search warrant- authorized by judge to search someone's property

46. involuntary servitude- forced labor.

47. discrimination- bias, unfairness.

48. writs of assistance- blanket search warrants

49. probable cause- most likely reason.

50. exclusionary rule- evidence gained illegaly cannot be used at court.

51. writ of habeas corpus- prevents unjust arrests.

52. bill of attainder- inflicts punishment without a trial.

53. ex post facto law- a law passed after the fact.

54. grand jury- formal device by which a person can be charged a crime.

55. indictment- formal complaint that the prosecutor lays before grand jury.

56. double jeapordy- twice put in jeapordy of life.

57. bench trial- the judge hears the case alone.

58. Miranda rule- before police may question a suspect that person must be told their rights.

59. bail- sum of money to get someone out of jail.

60. preventive detention- preventing the accusation of a charged felon.

61. capital punishment- punishment by death.

62. treason- levying war against US, aiding the enemies.

63. heterogenous- composed for more than 1 ingredient.

64. immigrant- person who came from other country.

65. reservation- public lands set aside for Native Americans.

66. refugee- one who seeks protection from war.

67. assimilation- process where 1 culture merges with another.

68. segregation- separation of 1 group to another.

69. Jim Crow law- laws that separate people according to race.

70. separate-but-equal doctrine- constitutional basis for Jim Crow law.

71. integration- merging of different races

72. de jure segregation- segregation by law.

73. de facto segregation- segragation by communities.

74. affirmative action- taking immediate action.

75. quota- the required amount to achieve.

76. reverse discrimination- discrimination against the majority group.

77. citizen- one who owes allegiance to the US.

78. jus soli- law of the soil.

79. jus sanguinis- law of the blood.

80. naturalization- legal process by which a person becomes a citizen.

81. alien- citizen of a foreign country living in this state.

82. expatriation- legal process by which a person loses citizenship.

83. denaturalization- cancels the naturalization process of a person.

84. deportation- legal process by which aliens are required to leave the US.

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