Best Answer

Agenda setting: Problems are defined and issues are raised. Gatekeepers filter out those which well be given attention by either the executive or the legislative branches.

Formulation: Analysis and politics determines how the agenda item is translated into an authoritative decision: a law, rule or regulation, administrative order, or resolution. There are two steps in policy formulation:

Alternative policy proposals are put forth, claiming rationality and technical analysis within the process. Policy analysts bring these alternatives to the attention of political decision makers with their recommendations.

The policy prescription is chosen among the alternatives, including the no-action option. This is usually accomplished by building the support of a majority. What is produced here is a binding decision or series of decisions by elected or appointed officials who are not necessarily experts but who are presumably accountable to the public.

Implementation: The authorized policy must be administered and enforced by an agency of government. The agency must take instructions as stated in the policy, but will probably be called upon to provide missing pieces and to make judgments as to intent, goals, timetables, program design, and reporting methods. The agency's mission may be well defined or poorly understood, but the action has shifted.

Budgeting: Financial resources must be brought to bear within an ongoing annual stream of budget cycles. Budget decisions are generally made with partial information and by changes from year to year which are only slightly different from the year before, a process called incrementalism. In recent years, budget constraints have significantly elevated budget considerations in importance within the policy cycle. Budget items are highly competitive and vital for policy delivery.

Evaluation: The impacts of the policy may be assessed. If goals exist, the effectiveness of the policy and its components can be determined. Side-effects must also be discovered and reckoned. The output of evaluation may be no change, minor modification. overhaul, or even (but rarely) termination. The feedback provided by evaluation is injected back into the agenda setting stage, thus closing the loop of the cycle.

User Avatar

Wiki User

11y ago
This answer is:
User Avatar

Add your answer:

Earn +20 pts
Q: Major elements in the public policy making cycle and how do they interact?
Write your answer...
Still have questions?
magnify glass
Related questions

What is the relationship between public opinion and policy-making?

Public opinion is views represented by the general public and policy making is adopted by the government. SO - public opinion can impact policy making in a positive or negative way, whether it is in your favor or not in your favor.

What are the three elements of a policy system?

Environment - Political System - Public Policy

Who influence the law making process?

The public policy

A stage of policy making includes promises to the public about new policies?


Stages of public policy process?

1. Genesis of the public policy 2. Development of the Public Policy 3. Implementation of the public policy 4. Feedback on the public policy

What is policy implementation and what are the three elements to implementation?

Policy Implementation is the stage of policy-making between the establishment of a policy and the consequences of the policy for the people whom it affects. Implementation involves translating the goals and objectives of a policy into an operating, on going program.The 3 elements are:1. Creation of a new agency or assignment of a new responsibility to an old agency2. Translation of policy goals into operational rules and development of guidelines for the program3. Coordination of resources and personnel to achieve the intended goals.Lineberry, American Public PolicyEntire message received from Choices - Custom Resources for Political Science

Lobbying is the process by which group pressures are applied to?

all aspects of the public policy-making process

What has the author Paulette A Mandelbaum written?

Paulette A. Mandelbaum has written: 'POLLUTION AND THE MAKING OF PUBLIC POLICY'

How are adding like radicals and combining like terms different?

Write an essay on the impact of policy dynamics on policy changes within the policy making process in the public sector

What has the author Robert Eyestone written?

Robert Eyestone has written: 'From social issues to public policy' -- subject(s): Decision making, Policy sciences, Political participation, Politics and government, Public administration, Social policy 'Political economy: politics and policy analysis' -- subject(s): Economic policy

What has the author Larry L Wade written?

Larry L. Wade has written: 'The elements of public policy' -- subject(s): Democracy, Policy sciences, Politics and government, Public administration 'Economic development of South Korea' -- subject(s): Economic conditions, Economic policy

What are examples of public policy making?

when sir fatty loser pants says yo do some thing