Executive and Chief
He was the first chief executive to serve under the constitution of the United States.
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There is no chief executive of the United States Constitution. If you are asking who is supposed to uphold the Constitution and make sure it is followed, that would be the President of the U.S. and the Congress (Senate and House of Representatives). I believe they all take oaths when they are sworn in to uphold it.
According to the Constitution, the resignation is placed in the hands of the Chief Justice. This is in accordance with the separation of powers.
The Framers of the US Constitution were comfortable with having a president act as the commander in chief once a war began. They were comfortable with this system in that having a civilian control the armed forces during a war, any misuse of power could be "fixed" in that the president would have to run for office again. Any abuses of power could be corrected at the ballot box.
The delegate and future president that was known as the chief framer of the constitution was James Madison.
The idea of John Locke's powerful executive in times of an emergency did not appear in the Framers' view of the US Constitution. They made no provision regarding the Lockian view of a powerful executive in times of an emergency. The closest they came to that was the allowed suspension of habeas corpus. Even in that they did not specify that the power of suspension belonged solely to the chief executive. Writing in the Federalist Papers, Framer Clinton Rossiter stated that the Constitution was "equal to any emergency".Later during the US Civil War, President Lincoln would create that power for himself.
The US Supreme Court in the Dred Scott case decision of 1857 contains the 50 pages opinion of Chief Justice Taney. In the document he states that Blacks cannot be citizens because they are Blacks and that slavery was constitutional. The latter was the fault of the Framers of the US Constitution who allowed it in order for the slave states to ratify the constitution.
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