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life liberetyy and property.

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Jamir Kovacek

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2y ago
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12y ago

According to john Locke, natural rights are Life, Liberty, and Property.

When writing the Declaration of Independence, the founding fathers omitted Property and replaced it with "the Pursuit of happiness", because they feared calling property a natural right, as that could be taken as the right to hold slaves as property.

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14y ago

Natural right is distinguished from that of legal right. Natural rights are those rights of any species that exist outside of artificial legal contrivances. Fish that swim in the ocean do so by natural right and not out of some legislation that allows it. Here then are John Lockes own words on the subject: "The main intention of nature, which willeth the increase of mankind, and the continuation of the species in the highest perfection" "The people can not delegate to government the power to do anything which would be unlawful for them to do themselves." "The end of law is not to abolish or restrain freedom, but to preserve and enlarge freedom." "There can not anyone moral rule be proposed, where of a man may not justly demand a reason." "If man in the state of nature be so free, as has been said; if he be absolute lord of his own person and possessions, equal to the greatest, and subject to no body, why will he part with his freedom? Why will he give up this empire, and subject himself to the dominion and control of any other power? To which it is obvious to answer, that though in the state of nature he hath such a right, yet the enjoyment of it is very uncertain, and constantly exposed to the invasion of others: for all being kings as much as he, every man his equal, and the greater part no strict observers of equity and justice, the enjoyment of the property he has in this state is very unsafe, very unsecure. This makes him willing to quit a condition, which, however free, is full of fears and continual dangers: and it is not without reason, that he seeks out, and is willing to join in society with others, who are already united, or have a mind to unite, for the mutual preservation of their lives, liberties and estates, which I call by the general name, property." "That equal right which every man hath, to his natural freedom, without being subjected to the will or authority of another man." "A criminal, who having renounced reason...hath, comitted upon one, declared war against all mankind, and therefore may be destroyed as a lion or a tiger, one of those wild savage beasts with whom men can have no society nor security. And upon this is grounded the great law of nature, "Who sheddeth mans blood, by man shall man shall his blood be shed." "To understand political power right, and derive it from it's original, we must consider what state all men are naturally in, and that is, a state of perfect freedom to order their actions, and dispose of their possesions, and persons as they think fit, with the bounds of the law of nature, without asking leave, or depending on the will of anyother man." "The people can not delegate to government the power to do anything which would be unlawful for they to do themselves." "He that in the state of nature, would take away that freedom, that belongs to anyone in that state, must necessarily supposed to have a design to take away everything else. As he that in the state of society, would take away the freedom belonging to those in that society or commonwealth, must be supposed to design to take away from them everything else." "For in that state of perfect equality, where naturally there is no superiority or jurisdiction of one over another, what any may do in prosecution of that law, everyone must needs have a right to do."

Thomas Hobbes and John Locke were two main political philosophers during the seventeenth century. Hobbes is the well known author of "Leviathan," and Locke is the author of "An Essay Concerning Human Understanding." In their essays, both men address the characteristics of man, natural law, and the purpose and structure of government. The two men have very different opinions of the characteristics of man. Hobbes sees man as being evil, whereas Locke views man in a much more optimistic light. They both agree that all men are equal according to natural law

. However, their ideas of natural law differ greatly. Hobbes sees natural law as a state of war in which "every man is a enemy to every man." Locke on the other hand, sees natural law as a state of equality and freedom. Locke therefore believes that government is necessary in order to preserve natural law, and on the contrary, Hobbes sees government as necessary in order to control natural law. Hobbes and Locke see mankind's natural characteristics in two very different ways. Hobbes describes the life of man as "solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short…". He obviously does not think very highly man. He also says that it is hard for men to "believe there be many so wise as themselves," expressing his discontent with how selfish men are. Conversely, Locke views mankind's natural characteristics much more optimistically. Locke sees men as being governed "according to reason." He perceives men to be thinking, capable individuals that can coexist peacefully. Hobbes and Locke disagree on mankind's natural characteristics, but the degree of their disagreement grows much larger with respect to natural law. The main thing that Hobbes and Locke can seem to agree on, with respect to natural law, is that all men are equal in nature. For Hobbes, this equality exists in a state of war, in which "every man has a right to every thing." He terms this state of war, a state of equality, because even "the weakest has strength enough to kill the strongest." In Hobbes's opinion, no one is superior, because they are all equal in their level of rottenness. Locke agrees that in natural law, no one is superior. However he writes, "the state all men are naturally in…is a state of perfect freedom… equality… and liberty," displaying his belief that men are sensible by nature, and can exist happily according to natural law, without the need for constant war. Locke does admit that war is sometimes necessary, but that one may only "destroy a man who makes war upon him." In general, he believes that it is beneficial for humans to follow natural law. Since natural law is good, and not evil for Locke, it is therefore the role of government to preserve natural law. For Hobbes on the other hand, government must exist in order to control natural law. Hobbes reasons that people will abide by the laws the government sets, for "fear of some evil consequence." Hobbes points out the selfish reasons for why man will follow government in order to explain how government is able to work, with men being so naturally evil. Locke sees government, as merely a preservation of that which is already good. Locke believes that people are willing to unite under a form of government so as to preserve "their lives, liberties and estates," or in other words, their property. Since natural law is already good, government not only preserves natural law, but also works to enhance it. The ideas presented by Hobbes and Locke are often in opposition. Hobbes tends to take a much more pessimistic stance; viewing men as evil, natural law as a state of war, and government as something that can wipe out natural law. Locke takes a much more optimistic stance; viewing men as free and equal and seeing government as only a preservation of the state they are naturally in. Despite the difference in their arguments, their ideas were revolutionary for their time. The interest they took in man's natural characteristics, natural law, and the role of government, provided inspiration for, and was the focus of many literary works throughout the Enlightenment.

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12y ago

According to John Locke, natural rights are Life, Liberty, and Property.

When writing the Declaration of Independence, the founding fathers omitted Property and replaced it with "the Pursuit of happiness", because they feared calling property a natural right, as that could be taken as the right to hold slaves as property.

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13y ago

John Locke Natural Rights to Life,Liberty and Property.

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14y ago

Life,Liberty, and Property

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13y ago

Life ,Liberty ,Property

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11y ago

Life, Liberty and Property

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11y ago

he has a right to anything

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Q: What is 'natural right ' according to John Locke?
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