What is garveyism?

Updated: 4/28/2022
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Garveyism is an aspect of Black Nationalism which takes its source from the works, words and deeds of UNIA-ACL founder Marcus Garvey. The fundamental focus of Garveyism is the complete, total and never ending redemption of the continent of Africa by people of African ancestry, at home and abroad.

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How did Marcus Garvey become famous?

Marcus Mosiah Garvey Jr. was a publisher, journalist, entrepreneur, Black Nationalist, Pan-Africanist, and orator. Marcus Garvey was founder of the Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League (UNIA-ACL).Garvey was unique in advancing a Pan-African philosophy to inspire a global mass movement focusing on Africa known as Garveyism. Promoted by the UNIA as a movement of African Redemption, Garveyism would eventually inspire others, ranging from the Nation of Islam, to the Rastafari movement (which proclaims Garvey as a prophet). (Wikipedia)For the source and more detailed information concerning your request, click on the related links section (Wikipedia) indicated directly below this answer section.

What did Marcus Garvey urge African American to do?

Marcus Garvey is historically linked to the "Back to Africa" movement that encouraged the repatriation of slave descendants, and black solidarity within a unified Africa. Marcus Garvey (1887-1940) was born in Jamaica and travelled widely examining the status of blacks in Europe and America. He decided that they could only achieve parity with whites by uniting under their African heritage. He was a major leader in the Pan-African Movement, and also supported the continued colonization of Liberia in Africa. His movement of "African Redemption" became known as Garveyism, and was one basis for the Rastafari religious movement, where he is revered as a prophet.

Marcus Garvey encouraged African Americans to do what?

Marcus Garvey (1887-1940) was born in Jamaica and travelled widely examining the status of blacks in Europe and America. He decided that they could only achieve parity with whites by uniting under their African heritage. He was a major leader in the Pan-African Movement, and also supported the continued colonization of Liberia in Africa. His movement of "African Redemption" became known as Garveyism, and was one basis for the Rastafari religious movement, where he is revered as a prophet. hope it helped :)

What did Marcus Garvey encouraged African Americans to do?

Marcus Garvey (1887-1940) was born in Jamaica and travelled widely examining the status of blacks in Europe and America. He decided that they could only achieve parity with whites by uniting under their African heritage. He was a major leader in the Pan-African Movement, and also supported the continued colonization of Liberia in Africa. His movement of "African Redemption" became known as Garveyism, and was one basis for the Rastafari religious movement, where he is revered as a prophet. hope it helped :)

What is the difference between ska and rocksteady?

It's difficult to answer your question regarding what you were listening to without more information. What is "a lot faster"? It's possible you were hearing ska but you could also have been hearing soca (which is very different from ska, rocksteady or reggae but it would fit with the "Caribbean sound" part of your description). Soca is derived mainly from calypso and is associated primarily with Trinidad (although soca is big on several other Caribbean islands). If you'd like some suggestions I can hook you up. As for your question concerning Jamaican music in general: the answer is potentially very long. I will, however, give you a quick crash course. Ska became popular in Jamaica in the early 1960s. When Jamaica gained its independence in 1962 there was a sudden desire amongst many Jamaicans to hear music with a strong Jamaican identity. Prior to independence, Jamaican music that did not closely resemble the music coming from the U.S. at the time was, in Jamaica, largely looked down upon. Ska was basically the product of musicians trained in jazz and exposed to, amongst other things, R&B and calypso. The horns were a big part of early ska and vocals were not a necessary ingredient. In 1966 there was a shift in Jamaican music. Rocksteady developed and became the dominant sound for approximately two years. The most obvious difference between rocksteady and ska is the tempo. While it was not unusual for ska recordings to sit between 110 and 135 beats per minute (BPM), rocksteady tended to sit between, say, 76 and 100 BPM. The rocksteady era was largely associated with vocal groups (trios especially) harmonizing in much the same way as American groups such as the Impressions (rocksteady was, in many ways, "singer's" music). It would seem that another distinction between ska and rocksteady was the bass lines. Whereas ska tended to feature walking bass lines, rocksteady incorporated the kinds of repeated "riff-like" lines commonly associated with reggae. The differences between rocksteady and reggae seem to be a little less clear cut. The term "reggae" came into being in 1968, I believe and, like the term "rocksteady" before it, became a catchword, appearing in numerous song titles and lyrics. Instead of "doing rocksteady" on the dance floor people were now "doing the reggae". Some have suggested that early reggae was faster than rocksteady but that isn't necessarily the case. One thing that does become more apparent in reggae are the references to Rastafarianism and the unabashed use of patois. If you listen to rocksteady and ska vocals, you'll hear that the they sound much less stereotypically "Jamaican" in terms of accents and slang usage than what began appearing in reggae. "Roots" reggae refers to reggae that is tied to the notions of Rastafarianism and Garveyism. Love of Jah and leaving "Babylon" are common themes in much "roots" reggae. From a technological standpoint, there were several developments that helped propel Jamaican music in new directions during the 1970s. The most radical and influential result of such developments was undoubtedly dub. In its initial stages, dub mixes involved little more than removing the vocal track of a recording, leaving an instrumental version of the song for DJs to talk/rhyme/chant over during their sets at the many dances that would occur throughout the country. As mix engineers such as Lee Perry and King Tubby got more creative behind their mixing desks, however, the dub mix became a musical statement unto itself. By fading various tracks (bass, vocals, guitar, etc.) in and out of the mix and adding effects (such as echo) in (oftentimes) copious amounts the dub took on an identity of its own, at once connected and removed from the original piece of music. Here, many would argue, lay the beginnings of the commercial remix. In the late 1970s the predominant sound in reggae was dancehall. Dancehall, unlike roots reggae, tended to emphasize less "heavy" themes lyrically speaking, focusing not so much on, for example, repatriation but instead on subjects such as dancing and women. The Roots Radics band are the studio band most often associated with early dancehall (for an idea of classic early dancehall you can check out any number of recordings produced by Henry "Junjo" Lawes). Ragga (meaning "digital" reggae, or reggae made with drum machines and synthesizers as opposed to live bands) came into being in 1985 with Wayne Smith's "Under Mi Sleng Teng". Not too long after, the dominant ragga vocal styling was that of the "rockstone"-voiced DJ (or MC, in American hip-hop parlance - in Jamaica disc-jockeys are often referred to as "selectors", while "DJ" refers to one who "chats" on the mic) - think Shabba Ranks, Bounty Killer or Buju Banton... I'll let someone else take it from there as I should have been in bed an hour ago! Edit: sorry about the lack of separate paragraphs...

How did Bob Marley become a singer?

In the last thirty years Jamaica's popular music reggae, has resonated with audiences both at home as well as abroad. It is a phenomenon whose impact cannot be challenged even by its staunchest critic.It has, and is still able to act as social commentary, political agitator and used as cultural expression. It has challenged the status quo of the Jamaican society from its own confines of the inner city to which they are physically confined. The music has challenged both, racism as well as classism in Jamaica by forcing the issue to the fore of Jamaica's consciousness.Few have been as successful in doing this as Bob Marley and the Wailers.All the members of Wailers group experienced the forms of repression and discrimination as well as dire poverty they have written about in their music and have therefore been able to remain legitimate in this to both their audience as well as themselves.The Wailers originally comprised of Robert 'Nesta' Marley, Neville 'Bunny' Livingston, Hubert 'Tosh' McIntosh, Junior Braithwaite and two female backing vocalists.For all these youths poverty was the only reality they knew and therefore music would have to be their way out.They met Joe Higgs who was a Trench Town artist and one that was willing to work with young talent once they were serious and focused. He convinced Marley and company to audition for Clement 'Coxsone' Dodd, they passed the audition and soon released 'Simmer Down'. This song was an immediate hit in Jamaica particularly among the impoverished youths. Nonetheless, long term success was hard to come by. Over the next two years they did covers for some of the biggest songs such as Tom Jones's 'What's New Pussycat?.'However, Bob Marley and the Wailers would soon have problems convincing radio stations to play their music as the popular music turned toward a darker though existing reality. Their own plight as poor inner city youth found itself in their music and they quickly developed a reputation as rebels and rude boys which made for a captive audience in the inner cities.Despite having recorded as many as one hundred songs,Bob Marley and the Wailers were not earning any money. In 1966 Bob left Jamaica and migrated to Delaware where he stayed with his mother worked and saved money to start his own record shop. During this period the defiant stance for which the Wailers had became infamous for was gradually getting stronger.The visit of his Imperial Majesty Haile Selassie I had strengthened the resolve of Rita, Bunny as well as Tosh who by now were immersing themselves in the teachings of Rastafari as well as Garveyism, these teachings would later be embraced by Marley on his own quest for self discovery.~Bob Marley was a Rastafarian who smoked marijuana or 'ganja'- a holy sacrament in their religion, and VASTLY different from crack cocaine.In his book 'Bob Marley, Conquering lion of Reggae', Stephen Davis wrote about the last months of Bob's life, when he was aware that he was seriously ill and faced the need to put in exhausting performances on tour. He said that rumours were circulating that Bob was keeping going by 'freebasing', that is smoking pure cocaine. However, even if the rumours were true, this is very different from the recreational use of cocaine."Ganja is considered the "wisdom weed" by Rastafarians, as its use helps one to gain wisdom. Rastafarians use it as a part of a religious rite and as a means of getting closer to their inner spiritual self, Jah (God) and Creation.Ganja is also seen by Rastafarians as the herb of life mentioned in the Bible. Rastafarians use of ganja is justified by the following Psalms 104:14 that says, "He causeth the grass to grow for the cattle and herb for the service of man, that he may bring forth food out of the earth." Rastafarians also say it was found growing at the grave of King Solomon in the Bible."~Cont.Upon the return of Bob Marley their music would begin to reflect even more social commentary, political protest and now it was beginning to reflect a spiritual belief.During the 1960's the Wailers became the first popular Jamaican group to completely embrace the doctrines of Rastafari and display it in their music and life. As the conditions of the inner city got harder so did they.They became synonymous with the rude boy culture and became popular among the sound selectors (DJ's) and released songs such as 'Rudie get bail' and 'Rude Boy'.They now became consumate observers of the system of oppression to which they were being subjugated and which was termed as 'Babylon'.This system they argue ' sucking the blood of the sufferers building church and university deceiving people continually...' many have speculated that this was just as related to the government as well as to Coxsone who was not paying them but rather collecting all the profits for himself.By late 1965 the Wailing Wailers were reduced to the original trio of Bob, Bunny, Tosh as members migrated to the United States or just lost interest.Soon they would once again be looking for members to join, in came Rita Anderson who not only fit into the group but who would in the long term would play a pivotal role in Bob Marley and the Wailers as well as ensuring the preservation of her husband's legacy after his death.By 1967 the Wailers new faith which was an unapologetic one that made no attempts to be a part of the system termed as the Babylon system.It was this new faith and attitude that brought them into conflict with Coxsone, who they soon left to form their own label.Before they finally did so they recorded 'Bend down low' which was also a hit despite this they were not paid by Coxsone.The name of the new label was Wailin' Soul Records. This new venture seemed as if it would work as they were at the time one of the more popular bands around.They released 'This man is back', 'Selassie is the chapel', 'Bus dem shut' which was dedicated to the inner city youth who continued to struggle.About this time there was a great fervor that was taking over the United States. Black consciousness was been preached by Malcolm X and others. This followed the teachings of Marcus Mosiah Garvey.Marley cut off his dreads and started to wear an afro, Bunny was imprisoned for possession of marijuana and Tosh became a comb carver. For the time whatever aspirations the Wailers had had were put on hold. In 1968 the Wailers were given another opportunity, they would record with Danny Simms an American producer.The music they produced was indicative of a commercial sound and did not resonate with Jamaican audience's particularly Jamaican youth who were used to songs that mirrored their pain and frustration.The relationship with Sims and his company was cut off and the Wailers were allowed to record with other producers with the stipulation that these recordings remain local to which thThey began working with Leslie Kong who released some nine songs for them.Though the recordings were not successful commercially Kong agreed to compile an album entitled the best of the Wailers which created tension between members of the group who argued that it was impossible to have a greatest hits album when they had just begun.Kong was later threatened that if he released the album he would die, the threat was shrugged off and the album released in Jamaica, a year later he died from a massive heart attack, many have speculated that Bunny Wailer used his knowledge of black magic on him.Once again the Wailers career was on hold as Bob left again for the United States.Peter Tosh changed his name to Peter Touch and released some songs including 'Selassie Serenade' and 'Sun Valley'.When Bob returned they once again tried to make it big. This time with someone familiar an old friend and former apprentice of Clement Dodd, his name, Lee 'Scratch' Perry.Perry would reshape both the sound of the Wailers as well as detach them from the compromising stance they had taken in their music.Gone were the doo-wop melodies and instead a return to a rawness and hunger that had given popularity to their music in the early days.The Wailers music, according to Stephen Davis became evil again, tough as nails, as in the days of 'Rude boy' as well as 'Rule this land'.This without question was as a result of the tremendous talent of their backing band, the Upsetters.Two of its members would later join the Wailers, Aston 'family man' Barrett and Carlton Barrett. The sessions lasted from late 1969 through to 1970; the Wailers were back or were they? Perry wanted Bob Marley and the Wailers to work exclusively for him, and so they did until 1978.During this period they recorded songs such as 'Duppy Conquerer', 'Small Axe', 'Don't Rock My Boat',and '400 Years'They also re-worked songs such as 'Soul Rebel' 'Rebel's Hop' and from the early 70's 'Kaya', 'Lively Up Yourself' and most importantly 'Trench Town Rock'.Trench Town Rock in particular resonated with the inner city youth who once again felt as if they had a voice.As a result of the immense success of the single the Wailers were really beginning to receive the big break they deserved. Once again they were making their music creating their own sound and audience.They were once again swindled out of money, this time by Perry who distributed their music and kept all the royalties.At this point Bob Marley had enough money for the establishment Tuff Gong Records which had always been a dream of his. In 1970 the Wailers cranked out as many records as they could, their days were filled with recording sessions and nights left for even more rehearsals.Though there was enormous progress being made there was still very little to show for it and tensions were high. Bunny and Bob would not talk to each other for long periods and it was usually Bob's songs that were rehearsed and recorded over Tosh's which would later aid in the demise of the Wailers. All of this was taking place at a time when the political atmosphere in Jamaica was changing.The vast majority of the poor and uneducated were black; the aims of the middle class was supported by the politicians who continued to allow these few to get rich off cheap black labor; corruption was on the rise; and the poor continued to suffer.In 1971 Bob Marley and the Wailers went to London to provide backup for Johnny Nash and were instrumental in getting CBS to finance an 8 week tour with Nash and Marley.In 1971 after Nash returned to the U.S. Bob approached Chris Blackwell, a London based record producer with Jamaican roots, and summated the group's goals.Blackwell who had been following the careers of Bob Marley and the Wailers had some trepidation about the group which soon subsided after speaking with Marley. Blackwell agreed to give them financial backing of just 1000 pounds.The process of recording an album began to take shape entitled 'Catch a fire' in early 1972 and released in 1973. This time the Wailers would be packaged in a way that would ensure that the records were marketable to both local [Jamaican] audiences as well as foreign ones. Marley soon negotiated for the release of the Wailers from their contract with Nash and Catch a Fire was released.After three months of touring, the tension among the band mates soon started to emerge and as soon as the plane landed in Jamaica Bunny Wailer left the band and relegated his recordings and performances with the Wailers to only Jamaica.The tensions in the group seemed insurmountable and in January 1975 Bob Marley and the Wailers officially broke up due to the distrust between Tosh and Blackwell. There were also creative differences between them and the fact that Marley was given most if not all the credit for Wailer material.So it was over and they went their separate ways, with Tosh doing songs such as `Mark of the Beast', 'Legalise it' and Bunny released Blackheart man in 1976 on Island Records.Natty Dread which included 'No woman no cry' was released in 1974 and Rastaman Vibration in 1975. They continued to tour America as well as Europe and finally began to reap the rewards of their hard work. As Bob emerged as Reggae's superstar it was clear that the situation was not going to change in Jamaica as the message which was preached by the Rasta seemed to be lost on the desperate poor blacks. The tension in Jamaica was high when there was an assassination attempt on the life of Bob Marley and the Wailers who had been rehearsing for the peace concert to be held at the National Stadium. Despite being grazed by a bullet and other members of the party being shot, the concert still went ahead as scheduled.In 1977 the preparations for Exodus had begun they would end up with enough to make both Exodus as well as Kaya.The final of the Wailers albums were- Survival 1979, Uprising 1980, Confrontation 1983, Natural Mystic 1995.Though the members of the Wailers have since either died or are creating their own paths, one is able to truly examine the significant contribution of this band to the cultural as well as political and social climate of Jamaica.Peter Tosh created - 'Legalize it' [1976], 'Equal Rights' [1977], 'Bush Doctor' [1978], 'Mystic Man' [1979] and 'Wanted Dread or Alive' [1981].After leaving the Wailers he released 'Blackheart Man' [1976], 'Protest' [1977], 'Mango' [1980] among others and continues today as the only surviving original Wailer.Though there was an ultimate demise of one of the greatest bands the world has ever seen, it will never be possible to take for granted the contribution that they have made to the music and the tremendous voice that they gave to the youths of the inner city as well as the downtrodden around the world. The legacy therefore cannot be confined to just Jamaica but anywhere there was repression and exploitation of the lower classes.The music of the Wailers continue to cry out from the ghettos from whence they came, still wailing for justice, as said by Stephen Davis, reggae is created by people who have known suffering who are disenfranchised, torn from their past and yet whose music is constantly redeemed by hope, which is what the Wailers have been able to do for and with reggae music.Marley's musical career can be said to have gone through many stages, taking him from a Ska artist through to Reggae, all of this taking place between the 1970's and 80's in Jamaica.Bob at this time was best known for working with the reggae group "The Wailers". The Wailers was comprised of three of the most talented artists in reggae history, namely Marley, Bunny "Wailer" Livingstone and Peter Tosh.Bob Marley and the Wailers as they later became known (as more emphasis was placed on Marley).Songs were not only filled with pulsating beats and mesmerizing lyrics but had undercurrent themes of rebellion. As seen in such songs as "Them Belly Full But We Hungry". A direct social commentary on the Socialist regime of the Michael Manley who led People's National Party (PNP)in Jamaica.The music warns of the potency of socially excluded ghetto youth in creating a chaotic and volatile socio-political climate in Jamaica.Marley was very familiar with this subject as Trench Town during the 1970's and 80's like most other inner city areas experienced an upsurge in violence fuelled by youth lacking opportunities and feeling oppressed by legitimate authoritative forces of the state such as the police force.The group eventually split in 1975 after eleven successful records .Members of the group eventually enjoying relative levels of success as solo artists.Out of this group though the most internationally acclaimed would turn out to be Bob Marley. Many persons attribute this international fame to Marley's association with the well known and influential producer by the name of Chris Blackwell .Blackwell in 1962 made a move to England with his small scale label, purchasing master tapes produced in Kingston Jamaica and then proceeded to release them in Britain on Island the parent label and other lesser known ones such as Black Swan and Jump Up. Some of the more recognizable reggae artists that got their start on this label were Jimmy Cliff, Don Drummond and the Skatalites, Blues Buster and Marley himself.Chris Blackwell is said to have packaged Marley for export to an international audience. Being well connected and prominent in some circles, many say it is this power combined with Bob's raw talent that made a super star.Marley was signed to Island/Tuff Gong Records in 1972 and in 1975 produced the international hit "No Woman No Cry", to date one of Marley's most far reaching and well known songs. However with this international acclaim came criticisms that Marley's music, especially songs along the line of the all encompassing "One Love", was being "toned down" for a wider reception at the cost of the message.Prior to working with Blackwell, most of Marley's early efforts were produced by the late Sir Coxsone Dodd at the infamous Studio One. Financial pressure however placed a strain on this relationship.In the book on Marley's life entitled "Catch a Fire" he is quoted as having expressed a desire to his mother Cedella that he would like to have more creative input and ownership of recording rights. However the major labels of the day such as Studio One dominated the local music seen and so young artist without much capital had no choice but to comply with certain terns and adhere to their contracts.This strain led to yet another collaboration in Bob Marley musical career with a producer by the name of Lee "Scratch" Perry. This time the strain on the relationship came in the form of what is now termed as intellectual property rights with Bob wanting more control over his music financially as well as creatively.Regardless of the splits Bob was able to remain friends with all three producers up until the time of his death. It must be noted that Marley's work was responsible for the international cultural acceptance of reggae to a large extent, although it is widely believed that he lost a large portion of his Jamaican audience with this move to the international stage at the time this did not derail Bob Marley musical career. Today Marley is one of Jamaica's cultural icons and is used as a symbol of hope, peace and love.After the attack on his life at his Hope Road residence Bob Marley left Jamaica at the end of 1976, and went to England, where he recorded both Exodus and Kaya.He released "Africa Unite" on the Survival album in 1979, and was then invited to perform at the Zimbabwe Independence Day celebrations on April 17th 1980.He also performed at many other concerts spanning the length and breadth of the globe. Rastaman Vibration made big waves in the US charts on its release. The success got reggae and other reggae artists more exposure. Marley got more mileage a recognition for his peace efforts."War" brought the message of His Imperial Majesty Haile Selassie loud and clear to the young generation.Bob Marley Later Career:Bob Marley's Cancer/Bob Marley DiesThere are many rumors surrounding Bob Marley's death. It is rumored that Marley was a prime target of American intelligence agency the CIA for his anti-authority lyrics which were deemed a threat to social order because of the mostly revolutionary messages in them.However the medical reason surrounds a wound to Marley's right big toe that would prove fatal in the end. The toe in question was injured during the very physically active Marley's football matches. Marley initially did not take the injury seriously until he began to feel constant discomfort in the area of the same toe.After checks with physicians in July of 1977, Marley was diagnosed as having a form of skin cancer, malignant melanoma which had been present under his toenail.Doctors then suggested that the star amputate the toe in order to prevent the spread of the cancer.It is said that due to his Rastafarian belief Marley refused to undergo the amputation even in such a life threatening instance. A little known fact is that he did eventually undergo surgery in an attempt to expunge some of the cancer cells. The cancer spread to his brain, lungs and stomach.While on tour in the summer of 1980 trying to break into the United States market, he collapsed jogging in New York's Central Park. This was after a series of shows in England and at Madison Square Garden. The illness made him unable to continue with the large tour planned. Marley sought help, and decided to go to Munich,Germany in order to receive treatment from controversial cancer specialist Josef Issels for several months, but it was to no avail.He wanted to spend his final days in Jamaica after "Coming in From the Cold" but he became too ill on the flight home from Germany and had to land in Miami. He passed away at Cedars of Lebanon Hospital Miami, Florida on May 11, 1981.His state funeral in Jamaica was a dignified affair with combined elements of Ethiopian Orthodoxy and Rastafarianism. The Honourable Edward Seaga eulogized Marley after which his body was transported to his final resting place a crypt in Nine Miles, near his birthplace in the parish of St.Ann in Jamaica.Many people in alluding to the phenomenal turn out of people at his funeral use it as a point of reference when speaking about events where there is such a large turn out, "it big like Bob Marley funeral".Bob Marley's music and legend have gone from strength to strength in the years since his early death at age 36.Bob Marley's influence in music continues to produce a huge stream of revenue for his estate, which now has businesses in several spheres such as fashion, recording and branding of products and services to name a few.Today almost anywhere in the world when the name Bob Marley is mentioned it is recognized by old and young. He remains enormously popular and well known all over the world.Particularly so in Africa after having written many songs speaking to the issues of mental slavery, poverty, and other social injustices that have scourged and continue to negatively impact the continent .Bob Marley and the Wailers music is acknowledged and loved in places that they or he never even step foot such as the Philippines, Brazil, Nigeria, Ghana, and Taiwan among others.Bob Marley Life after DeathIn January 2005, numerous reports surfaced both in Jamaican and international media indicating the Marley's wife Rita Marley had intended to exhume the Marley's remains from its resting place in Nine Miles, Portland to Shashamane, Ethiopia.This she later cited as being in accordance with Marley's wishes. In supporting her actions Mrs. Marley said in a statement simply stated that "Bob's whole life is about Africa, it is not Jamaica." There is as lot of resistance to this proposal in Jamaica, with members of the Rastafarian community as well as the general public expressing displeasure with the announcement.The birthday celebrations for what would have been his 60th birthday in February 2005 were celebrated in Ethiopia for the first time, having previously always been held in Jamaica.Marley received many awards in addition to international recognition during his life time and also posthumously.Below are just a few of them.• Rolling Stone's Band of the Year in 1976.• The Peace Medal of the Third World in 1978 from the United Nations• The Order of Merit (Jamaica's highest honour) in 1981Posthumous Awards and Honours:• Inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1993.• Album of the Century by Time Magazine for Exodus in 1999.• Star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame in 2001and also the Grammy's Lifetime Achievement Award in the same year.