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Federal courts in the United States are sometimes classified as "Article I courts," "Article II courts" and "Article III courts," in reference to the first three articles of the U.S. Constitution:

Article I addresses the legislative power of the federal government, which includes Congress's power over non-state territories (e.g., American Samoa). Article I courts include territorial courts (U.S. District Court for the Virgin Islands, for example), and also some specialized courts created by Congress for specific purposes (such as the United States Tax Court and the United States Court of Military Appeals). Judges of Article I courts generally do not have the constitutional protections of life tenure or salary protection, and are instead often appointed for fixed terms (such as 10 or 14 years).

Article II addresses the executive power of the federal government, which includes the President's power as commander in chief. The term "Article II court" is rarely used (and there isn't really a solid distinction between an "Article I court" and an "Article II court"), but military courts martial are sometimes considered Article II courts. So, too, are military commissions, and the anomalous U.S. Court for Berlin. (Note, by contrast, the U.S. Court for China, which is considered an Article I court.)

Article III addresses the judicial power of the federal government. The vast majority of federal courts are "Article III courts," including the U.S. Supreme Court, the various U.S. Courts of Appeals (for the First, Second, Third, Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, Seventh, Eighth, Ninth, Tenth, Eleventh, D.C. and Federal Circuits), and all of the United States District Courts other than the territorial courts. The U.S. Court of International Trade is also an Article III court. Judges of Article III courts enjoy salary protection and life tenure (that is, they may only be removed by impeachment and conviction).

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Article III judges serve for life during good behavior and their compensation may not be reduced during service. Article I judges do not have these protections.

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Q: What is the difference between Article II courts and Article III courts?
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Related questions

What is an Article III state court?

There is no such thing as an Article III state court. Article III is the section of the US Constitution that deals with federal courts; it does not apply to state courts.

What are the two major divisions of the federal courts?

Congress created the Federal Appellate Courts and Federal High Courts.

Does courts hear hypothetical questions?

No Article III of constitution

What kind of courts are created by congress under the authority granted it in article III?

Constitutional courts

Who establishes federal courts?

The federal courts were established by the Constitution. They were established under Article III of the U.S. Constitution which was written by the framers.

Which article of the constitution deals with the supreme court's powers?

Article III deals with the supreme courts powers.

Who created constitutional and special courts based on Article III of the Constitution?


What is treason and why does it fall under the judiciary article?

The American, US Constitution Article III Law of Treason is based SOLELY on proof of overt acts because "no person shall be convicted...unless on overt act." The Article III judicial power includes the Duty to find well-evidenced facts. Therefore the US Supreme Court and the inferior courts are Article III courts and Treason is an Article III crime.

Who creates additional federal courts?

Congress is vested with the authority to create courts "inferior" to the US Supreme Court in both Article I and Article III of the US Constitution.

Does the US Supreme Court create the inferior courts?

No. Article I, Section 8 and Article III of the Constitution authorizes Congress to create courts "inferior" to the US Supreme Court.

What are the two court types within the federal court system?

The two types of federal courts are Article I (Article I, Section 8, Clause 9) courts and Article III (constitutional) courts.Article III CourtsUS District CourtsUS Court of International TradeUS Court of Appeals Circuit CourtsSupreme Court of the United StatesArticle I Courts (examples)US Bankruptcy CourtsUS Tax CourtsUS Court of ClaimsUS Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces

What is the difference between the constitutional and the special courts?

Constitutional court( also called Article III Courts or regular Courts) = is created by Congress and exercise the broad " judicial power of the United States" as stated in Article III Special Court( also called the Legislative Courts or Article I Courts )= Created by Congress under the power given to it in Article I " to constitute Tribunals inferior to the Supreme Court ", these courts have narrowly defined powers. regular courts or constitutional courts exercise in a broader way while the tribunals act in relation to limited matter. constitution courts are a bit formal and also follow the rules of evidence n the other hand the tribunals are often informal and dont follow the rules of evidence the courts act according to what they r told by the lawyers, witnesses and parties but the tribunals mostly act very practically and actively like making inquiries visiting the vicinity etc