Best Answer

Juveniles have the

right to an attorney and the right to remain

silent. Juveniles also have the right to confront

witnesses against them.

These rights were established by the

In re Gault Court case. In the 1967 case,

15-year-old Gerald Gault of Phoenix,

Arizona, was charged with making indecent

telephone calls to a neighbor. His parents

were not informed of his arrest. During the

hearing that followed, Gault did not have an

attorney present and the neighbor was not

questioned. The judge sentenced Gault to a

reformatory until the age of 21-a period of

six years. If Gault had been an adult, his

sentence would have been a $50 fine and a

few months in jail.

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It was determined that minors are entitled to constitutional protections.

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Q: What was the significance of Supreme Court's ruling in In re Gault?
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What US Supreme Court case gave the right to counsel for indigent defendants in state criminal cases?

Gideon v. Wainwright, 372 US 335 (1963)AnswerGideon v. Wainwright is a landmark US Supreme Court case that incorporated the Sixth Amendment right to counsel in criminal proceedings to the states via the Fourteenth Amendment Due Process Clause. In this case, the Court ruled emphatically that indigent defendants were entitled to court-appointed lawyers at critical stages of prosecution, including arraignment and trial.An earlier case, Powell v. Alabama, 287 US 45 (1932) had already extended that right to state defendants in capital (death penalty) cases, but the Supreme Court later allowed the states to exercise case-by-case discretion with regard to providing attorneys for other serious criminal offenses in Betts v. Brady, 316 US 455 (1942).ExplanationClarence Earl Gideon was a drifter who had been homeless most of his life. He developed a record of petty crime as a juvenile, and continued as an adult habitual offender. Gideon had been convicted and incarcerated in Texas and Missouri prisons on charges of robbery, burglary, larceny, escape, and theft. Gideon was nearly illiterate, poor, and had little formal education.Sometime between midnight and 6:00 am on June 3, 1961, someone broke into Ira Strickland's Bay Harbor Pool Room, near Panama City, FL. The burglar smashed a window, pried open the cigarette and soda machines, and left with approximately $5.00 in change, and at least one bottle of wine.Henry Cook, who lived in the neighborhood, told police he had seen Clarence Earl Gideon exit the Pool Hall around 5:30 am, carrying a bottle of wine. The police located Gideon, found change in his pockets, and arrested him on charges of breaking and entering with intent to commit petty larceny, a felony.When Gideon appeared before the Florida court, he requested a court-appointed attorney, but the judge denied his request because Florida law only required the state provide counsel for capital offenses. The court record shows Gideon objected on the grounds that the Supreme Court said he had a Sixth Amendment right to legal representation. The judge refused to accommodate Gideon's request, so the defendant was forced to represent himself (pro se).Although Gideon attempted to defend himself, he was unable to discredit any witnesses or weaken the Prosecution's case. As a result, he was found guilty and sentenced to the maximum penalty - five years in prison. Gideon began serving his sentence in August 1961.Using the prison library for reference, Gideon filed a writ of habeas corpus with the Florida Supreme Court, but his petition was denied. He then wrote a six-page letter to the Supreme Court on prison letterhead, seeking to appeal against the Secretary to the Florida Department of Corrections, Louie L. Wainwright. The Supreme Court granted certiorari, and appointed future Supreme Court justice Abe Fortas as Gideons counsel.Supreme Court DecisionIn a unanimous 9-0 decision, the Court held that its opinion in Betts v. Brady, (1942), which allowed the states to apply the Sixth Amendment selectively under the "special circumstances" doctrine, was unconstitutional. Betts essentially said the appointment of counsel was not a fundamental right; in Gideon v. Wainwright, the Court overturned the earlier precedent and asserted that "Lawyers are necessities, not luxuries." The ruling in this case incorporated the Right to Counsel Clause to the states via the Fourteenth Amendment Due Process clause, finally establishing that even indigent defendants deserved the benefit of legal representation.Gideon was not the first case in which the Warren Court expressed doubt about the ruling in Betts. Reid v. Covert,354 US 1 (1957) foreshadowed the decision to enforce the Bill of Rights against entities previously exempt from protecting certain fundamental rights. In Covert, the Supreme Court held that treaties with other countries did not revoke constitutional protections for US citizens, when the Court held that military spouses could not be convicted under military jurisdiction (except under certain exceptional circumstances), and could not be deprived of their constitutional rights, even if living overseas.Another case earlier case, Ferguson v. Georgia, 365 US 570 (1961), overturned a contradictory Georgia law that denied people deemed incompetent to testify on their own behalf "effective assistance of counsel."In Gideon, the Court essentially held that all laymen (non-lawyers) were incompetent to defend themselves at trial:"The right to be heard would be, in many cases, of little avail if it did not comprehend the right to be heard by counsel. Even the intelligent and educated layman has small and sometimes no skill in the science of law. If charged with crime, he is incapable, generally, of determining for himself whether the indictment is good or bad. He is unfamiliar with the rules of evidence. Left without the aid of counsel, he may be put on trial without a proper charge, and convicted upon incompetent evidence, or evidence irrelevant to the issue or otherwise inadmissible. He lacks both the skill and knowledge adequately to prepare his defense, even though he have a perfect one. He requires the guiding hand of counsel at every step in the proceedings against him. Without it, though he be not guilty, he faces the danger of conviction because he does not know how to establish his innocence."Gideon's conviction was overturned, and the case was remanded to the Florida Supreme Court so they could make arrangements for a new trial. Gideon was represented at the second trial by attorney W. Fred Turner, who successfully discredited the prosecution's witnesses, demonstrating there was no evidence against his client. The jury deliberated only an hour before acquitting Gideon of the charges.EpilogueThe state of Florida immediately complied with the Supreme Court's decision, and hired public defenders to work in its 16 state circuit courts.Gideon v. Wainwright, (1963) set the stage for later cases that expanded constitutional protections for the accused. For example, Miranda v. Arizona, (1966), provided that law enforcement officials must explicitly notify those in custody of their rights under the Fifth and Sixth Amendments.In 1972, the Court held that the Sixth Amendment right of indigent and low-income defendants to receive court-appointed counsel applied to every case of felony offense, as well as to any case in which the defendant is actually incarcerated, even if the crime is classified as a misdemeanor, per Scott v. Illinois,440 U.S. 367 (1979).In 2002, the Supreme Court further extended the right to counsel to any case where imprisonment is a possibility, even if the sentence is suspended, in Alabama v. Shelton, 535 US 654 (2002).For more information, see Related Questions, below.

What are the most famous Supreme Court cases?

U.S. Supreme Court rulings that have a significant impact on society are often referred to as "Landmark decisions" or "Landmark cases". The following list summarizes a few cases that had the most significant impact on history and society. You can access a longer list of cases via Related Questions, below.1803 Marbury v. MadisonUpheld the right of Marbury to occupy the position of justice of the peace of a certain district because the President (Madison) signed and sealed the appointment, despite Congress' attempt to block the appointment. This was the first time the Supreme Court formally defined its role as a court of review. They also admonished Congress for trying to legislate greater authority to the Court than the Constitution allowed.1819 McCullough v. MarylandUpheld the constitutionality of the Bank of the United States, based on the "spirit of the Constitution," rather than on a literal interpretation of the articles.1824 Gibbons v. OgdenInvalidated a monopoly enacted by New York state with regard to operating steamboats in state waters. Established the principle that Federal law supersedes state law.1832 Worcester v. GeorgiaDeclares a Georgia state law requiring residents of Cherokee territory to obtain a permit for living on the land because the demand conflicted with a federal treaty.1841 AmistadFreed Africans who had been enslaved in violation of Spanish law, and who had mutinied against the captain and crew of the Spanish ship, Amistad.1857 Dred Scott v. SandfordRuled neither slave nor free African-Americans were citizens of the United States, and were not entitled to sue in federal court. Also ruled that freemen traveling through slave-holding states had no right to freedom if captured. Also ruled the Missouri Compromise unconstitutional because it deprived people of property without due process.1866 Ex Parte MilliganDeclared military courts unconstitutional in areas where civil courts were in operation. Stated the U.S. Constitution applies regardless of peace or war.1873 Slaughterhouse CasesRuled that the 14th Amendment applied only to federal violations of individual rights, and that states were exempt. Also held that equal protection applied only to state laws discriminating against African-Americans.1875 Civil Rights CasesHeld that Congress had no right to impose laws requiring equal treatment for African-Americans on private businesses.1877 Munn v. IllinoisFirst of the "Granger Cases."Upheld states' rights to regulate businesses that involved the public interest.1886 Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific RR v. IllinoisStruck down a state law regulating transportation contracts because the federal government held sole jurisdiction over interstate commerce.1896 Plessy v. FergusonFamous decision that allowed "separate but equal" accommodations for African-Americans and Whites, on the grounds that segregation didn't deprive African-Americans of protection under the 14th Amendment.1905 Lochner v. New YorkStruck down a state law enforcing 10-hour workdays on bakery workers because it interfered with the employees' 14th Amendment right to liberty by denying employees the ability to negotiate employment contracts with their employer.1919 Schenck v. United StatesRuled that the WW I Espionage Act did not violate the First Amendment protection of free speech, stating that anti-war pamphlets encouraged resistance to the draft. This was the famous case that cited "clear and present danger" as a reasonable restriction on free speech.1925 Gitlow v. New YorkIn contrast to the Court's earlier rulings that the Constitution only applied to the federal government, decided the 14th Amendment made the First Amendment protection of speech and the press applicable to the states.1932 Powell v. AlabamaOverturned the Alabama state conviction of the "Scottsboro Boys," nine African-American boys convicted in the rape of two white women because the boys had been denied due process when the judge declined to provide them with a defense attorney.1935 Schechter v. United StatesStruck down the National Industrial Recovery Act because it delegated excessive authority of the U.S. President to regulate businesses not involved in interstate commerce.1937 West Coast Hotel v. ParrishIn support of Roosevelt's New Deal, the Court reversed its position Adkins v. Children's Hospital, and upheld a Washington State minimum wage law.1937 National Labor Relations Board v. Jones and Laughlin Steel Co.Upheld the National Labor Relations Act against a manufacturer that engaged in unfair labor practices by punishing or firing union members in an attempt to break the union.1943 Korematsu v. United StatesUpheld the U.S. policy of holding Japanese Americans in interment camps, except in the case where the person's loyalty had already been established.1952 Youngstown Sheet & Tube v. SawyerRuled that President Truman exceeded his authority by seizing steel manufacturers without the specific approval of Congress, in order to avert a strike by the United Steel Workers of America that would have disrupted arms production during the Korean War. (Also referred to as The Steel Seizure Case)1954 Brown v. Board of EducationRuled unanimously that segregation in the schools was unconstitutional, a move that overturned the 1896 Plessy v. Ferguson decision advocating "separate but equal" facilities for African-American and White citizens. Held that Brown experienced stigmatizing discrimination when denied enrollment in a school near her home.1961 Mapp v. OhioRuled that evidence obtained without a warrant or by any other unethical means was a 4th Amendment violation, and that the evidence may not be admitted in court.1962 Baker v. CarrThe court reversed its stance on cases involving "political questions," that cannot be tried in court, and decided citizens had a right to challenge political redistricting that overrepresented rural districts and diluted votes from urban districts.1962 Engel v. VitaleRuled prayer in public schools unconstitutional because it violated the separation of church and state.1963 School District of Abington Township v. SchemppProhibited bible reading and prayer in public schools.1963 Gideon v. WainwrightUnanimously ruled in favor of the plaintiff against the decision of the Florida Supreme Court, holding that the courts had violated Gideon's 6th Amendment right to counsel and 14th Amendment right to due process by refusing to appoint a defense attorney to Gideon, who was indigent.1964 New York Times v. SullivanIn one of the few Supreme Court cases involving civil liability, held that public figures could not sue for libel unless they could demonstrate the defamation was "malicious intent and with reckless disregard for the truth," a higher standard than imposed for ordinary citizens.1965 Griswold v. ConnecticutStruck down a Connecticut law prohibiting couples from using birth control because it violated the constitutional right to privacy. Although the Constitution does not specify a right to privacy, the court held that the right is implied in a variety of amendments.1966 Miranda v. ArizonaRuled that Miranda should have been advised of his constitutional rights against self-incrimination and right to consult with an attorney prior to questioning. Overturned the conviction and set precedent for the now-famous Miranda Warning.1967 Loving v. VirginiaInvalidated a Virginia law prohibiting interracial marriage as a violation of the 14th Amendment.1969 Tinker v. Des MoinesOverturned the suspension of students who had worn black arm bands in protest of the Vietnam War, declaring the school had violated their First Amendment right to freedom of speech.1971 New York Times v. United StatesDenied the government's request for prior restraint in their attempt to bar the New York Times from publishing a secret Pentagon history of the Vietnam war.1972 Furman v. GeorgiaStruck down death penalty laws because juries had excessive discretion in applying capital punishment, making capital punishment unconstitutional under the 8th and 14th Amendments.1973 Roe v. WadeInvalidated Texas law prohibiting abortion except when needed to save the mother's life. Ruled such laws violate a woman's right to privacy.1974 United States v. NixonThe Court ordered President Nixon to turn over subpoenaed tapes to the special prosecutor in charge of the Watergate hearings.1976 Gregg v. GeorgiaReinstated the death penalty, but required strict guidelines for its implementation.1989 Texas v. JohnsonInvalidated a Texas law that prohibited burning the flag on the grounds that it represented an unconstitutional restriction on expressive conduct and political commentary.1992 Planned Parenthood v. CaseyIn a challenge to Roe v. Wade, the court reaffirmed its position that abortion prior to the fetus being able to live outside the womb was not a criminal offense.2000 Bush v. GoreRuled in favor of the stay preventing Florida from counting legal ballots where the intent of the voter was considered unclear (e.g., hanging chads). Concluded that the recount would change the state voting process to favor one candidate over another and was, therefore, unconstitutional in that it failed to provide equal protection.2003 Lawrence v. TexasRuled the state could not interfere in private lives by making sexual acts between consenting adults a crime. Struck down the Texas statute as a violation of the 5th and 14th Amendments. This decision overruled the Courts own ruling on Bowers v. Hardwick, 1986.2003 Grutter v. BollingerHeld that race can be a consideration in deciding college enrollment, but that schools could not use a quota system in order to achieve a model that mirrored minorities' statistical representation in the population (University of Michigan Law School).2004 Hamdi v. RumsfeldRuled that persons retained as "enemy combatants" had a legal right to challenge their classification, despite a presidential order stating otherwise. Further ruled that Sixth Amendment protection did not extend to prisoners of war.2010 McDonald v. City of ChicagoHeld that US citizens had the right of self-defense (to bear arms) and incorporated the Second Amendment to the States. Similar to District of Columbia v. Heller, but applied to the states, not just the federal government as Heller did.

What important US Supreme Court cases did Chief Justice Earl Warren preside over?

Chief Justice Earl Warren presided over the US Supreme Court from 1953-1969, during a time of unprecedented change in the nation's history. The Warren Court addressed issues of civil rights, individual liberties, and judicial and federal power no less important than those established by Chief Justice Marshall in the early 19th century.The following list contains some of the better known cases decided during Warren's tenure:Notable Cases of the Warren CourtBrown v. Board of Education, 347 US 483 (1954)Bolling v. Sharpe, 347 US 497 (1954)Brown v. Board of Education II, 349 US 294 (1955)Lucy v. Adams, 350 US 1 (1955)Yates v. United States, 354 US 298 (1957)Roth v. United States, 354 US 476 (1957)Watkins v. United States, 354 US 178 (1957)Trop v. Dulles, 356 US 86 (1958)NAACP v. Alabama, 357 US 449 (1958)Speiser v. Randall, 357 US 513 (1958)Cooper v. Aaron, 358 US 1 (1958)Gomillion v. Lightfoot, 364 US 339 (1960)Boynton v. Virginia, 364 US 454 (1960)Mapp v. Ohio, 367 US 643 (1961)Fong Foo v. United States, 369 US 141 (1962)Baker v. Carr, 369 US 186 (1962)Engle v. Vitale, 370 US 421 (1962)Jones v. Cunningham, 371 US 236 (1963)Edwards v. South Carolina, 372 US 229 (1963)Gideon v. Wainwright, 372 US 335 (1963)Douglas v. California, 372 US 353 (1963)Gray v. Sanders, 372 US 368 (1963)Fay v. Noia, 372 US 391 (1963)Brady v. Maryland, 373 US 83 (1963)Abington v. Schempp, 374 US 203 (1963)Sherbert v. Verner, 374 US 398 (1963)Wesberry v. Sanders, 376 US 1 (1964)New York Times v. Sullivan, 376 US 254 (1964)Griffin v. County School Board of Prince Edward Co., 377 US 218 (1964)Reynolds v. Sims, 377 US 533 (1964)Jacobellis v. Ohio, 378 US 184 (1964)Escobedo v. Illinois, 378 US 478 (1964)Cooper v. Pate, 378 US 546 (1964)Beck v. Ohio, 379 US 89 (1964)McLaughlin v. Florida, 379 US 184 (1964)Heart of Atlanta Motel v. United States, 379 US 241 (1964)Griffin v. California, 380 US 609 (1965)Griswold v. Connecticut, 381 US 479 (1965)Estes v. Texas, 381 US 532 (1965)Baxstrom v. Herold, 383 US 107 (1966)Memoirs v. Massachusetts, 383 US 413 (1966)Harper v. Virginia Board of Elections, 383 US 663 (1966)United States v. Price, 383 US 787 (1966)Sheppard v. Maxwell, 384 US 333 (1966)Miranda v. Arizona, 384 US 436 (1966)In Re Gault, 387 US 1 (1967)Loving v. Virginia, 388 US 1 (1967)Katz v. United States, 389 US 347 (1967)Duncan v. Louisiana, 391 US 145 (1968)United States v. O'Brien, 391 US 367 (1968)Green v. School Board of New Kent County, 391 US 430 (1968)Terry v. Ohio, 392 US 1 (1968)Epperson v. Arkansas, 393 US 97 (1968)Tinker v. Des Moines, 393 US 503 (1969)Street v. New York, 394 US 576 (1969)Bradenburg v. Ohio, 395 US 444 (1969)Powell v. McCormack, 395 US 486 (1969)For more information, see Related Questions, below.

What are some strange facts about former presidents?

During Ronal Reagan's presidency, the White House actually suffered an atomic pollution in the air ventalation system. Radioactivity is still found there. The Brother of John Wilkes Booth, once saved the son of Abraham Lincoln, when he fell from an overcrowded trainstation. Unlike most politicians, president Calvin Coolidge hated hid own voice. When a stranger came to him, and said: "i just betted 100 dollars, that i can make you say unleast three words". Then Coolidge Replied: "You lost". Richard Nixon used to work in a funfair, to attract people in. The 4/7 of the newest presidents were lefthanded, altough the possibility is much lower, in about 15 precent. While President John Quincy Adams was swimming naked in Potomac River, a reporter Anny Royal came to the shore, and sat on his clothes. She would not rise, until Quincy would give an interview. This was the first female to ever interview a president. Theodore Roosevelt wore girls clothes till he was five years old. The 'S' in Harry S. Turmans name doesent stand for anything. His so called middle name was a honor to his grandfathers, Anderson Shippe Turman and Solomon Young. Martin Van Buren, the eighth president of United States, was also the first president of the United States to have been born in the United states. "Living Lincoln", was a huge water oak, that grew to look just like Abraham Lincolns face from the side. John Adams and Thomas Jefferson were good friends. 50 years after the declaration of independence, Adams said his last words on his death bed: "Thomas Jefferson still survives". But Adams was frong, as Jefferson had died just few hours earlier. James Garfield was a very talented man, as he could write latin with one hand, and greek in the same time. Herbert Hoovers son had 2 pet alligators, and was the first president to use telephone in the white house. Jimmy Carter was the first president to have been born in a hospital. William Howard Taft was so fat, that he got stuck in a bathtub. He weighted 300 pounds. James Madison barely weighted 100 pounds. George Washingtong's teeth were made from hman and animal teeth, and had springs, that if he relaxed, the teeth would break. Andrew Johnson was buried wrapped in an American flag, with a copy of the constitution. Ruthword B. Hayers was the first president to use telephone. his phone number was 1. George Bush survived 4 plane crashes in the world war II. Anrew Jackson was the first president who almost got assassinated. he was at the Capitol City, whe an unemployeed house painter tried to shot him- twice. both of the guns misfired. John Tayler loved children, partly cause he himself had 15 of them. James Buchan sent a message to his successor saying: "My dear sir, if you are as happy on entering the White House as I on leaving, you are a happy man indeed." John F. Kennedy, Lee Harvey Oswald, and Jack Ruby all died in the same hospital. Abraham Lincoln grew a beard cause of a letter from a 12-year old girl, who said, that if he should grow a beard, cause he had such a thin face. Then all the women would like him, and he would become the president. Benjamin Harrison was the first president to enjoy elecricity in the White House. But after he got a shock from toutching one of the wires, his family refused to touch lightswitches, and he would often go to bed with lights on. Theodore Roosevelt was on a hunting trip, but he didnt catch anything. Then his friends tied a bear in a tree, so Roosevelt could shoot it, but he refused. When public heard about this, a local toy salesman named his stuffed bears as "Teddybears". Jimmy Carter could read 2000 word per minute. John F. Kennedy usually read 6 newspapers on his breakfast. When John Wilkes Booth killed Abraham Lincoln, he had two guns, other one in case the first one would have failed.