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Commonly called "Tories" in US history books but "Loyalists" in Canadian and British texts, these former American colonists were typically 'Anglo-Saxon' rather than of Scots or Irish background, and members of the "state church" 'The Church of England' rather than of Presbyterian or English-dissenter congregations (see: **FOOTNOTE). Loyalists are estimated to have comprised as much as 30% of the total populace of the American colonies in 1776, whereas Patriots were about one-third to 40%. Clearly, there also existed a sizeable remainder in the political centre, about a third of all colonists, largely indifferent to the dispute between the two more polarized political camps. American historical accounts tend to dismiss "Tories" as 'upper crust', and a minority certainly were. Canadian texts, however, emphasize that most Loyalists were businessmen, artisans, farmers or ex-soldiers. Thus, Canadian accounts of the American Revolution will characterize it as a 'civil war' as much as a 'war of independence'. Loyalists objected to the Patriots' "revolt" in 1776 for various reasons: being Protestant, some of their number took biblical text concerning 'authority' quite literally (ROMANS 13:1 "Everyone must submit himself to the governing authorities, for there is no authority except that which God has established. The authorities that exist have been established by God"); others felt that as the taxes, which so offended Patriots, were intended to defray the cost of defense of the colonies against France (e.g. 'Seven Year's War', 'The French and Indian War') they were but a small price to pay forthe safety and prosperity secured for the colonies by the British, and certainly no grounds for rebellion; others, while acknowledging that political change was due, differed from Patriots as to the degree of change needed or questioned the use of political violence to make change happen. In retribution for their beliefs and opposition during the revolt, Loyalist land-holdings were commonly confiscated and sold offby the Patriot administrations that controlled most colonies-turned-states (e.g. the verb: "to lynch", derives from an act of the Virginia legislature which retroactively legitimized the otherwise notorious actions committed against "Tories" by a Patriot judge named: "Lynch"). Property confiscation and vigilantismcombined to convince many Loyalists that to leave America was their best hope of survival. About 100,000 did leave: assuming a pre-Revolutionary total population of 1.7 million, departing Loyalist refugees represented about 6% of America. The majority of Loyalists fled to Britain's remaining continental colonies to the north, largely during the period 1783-93, and founded what is today known as 'English-speaking Canada'. They re-established themselves either in French-speaking and Catholic 'Canada', or in English-speaking 'Nova Scotia'. Due to the Loyalist influx, 'Canada' was sub-divided into today's "Ontario" and "Quebec", just as 'Nova Scotia' became "New Brunswick" and "Nova Scotia". These 'loyal colonies' were all later given democratically-elected parliamentary governments, and later still, were 'confederated' as provinces of modern "Canada"in 1867, or somewhat thereafter. Constitutionally, Canada remains a British-styled parliamentary democracy and 'confederation', with a 'constitutional monarch' as its nominal 'head-of-state', shared with The United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand and many other Commonwealth countries. Political conservatives throughout Canada continue to be known as "Tories", a resonance of The American Revolution. The official motto of the 'Province ofOntario' is still: "Loyal She Remains", not surprisingly, because the province was founded in 1793 by Governor John Graves Simcoe who had commanded one of 40 Loyalist militias 'Roger's Rangers'. His regiment is today called 'The Queen's York Rangers', a reserve unit that still boasts its honourary Loyalist title "1st American Regiment". The unit was re-mobilized in the 19th Century against attempted US annexations of Canada (e.g. War of 1812, "Fenian Raids") and to quell several political uprisings, fought last century in both WWI & II, and this century its troops have been deployed to The War in Afghanistan. -- LWN **FOOTNOTE: Today, the 'Church of England' is called the 'Episcopal Church' in America and 'The Anglican Church' in Canada. In addition to 'Anglo-Saxons', Loyalist refugees were augmented in sizeable numbers by 'native-Americans' (e.g. Joseph Brant, Mohawks), Afro-American slaves, and German-speaking Anabaptists (e.g. Mennonites).

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Q: Who in The 13 American Colonies opposed the Revolution of 1776 and why as well as where did they go?
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