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Who is kalipulako?

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Lapu-Lapu was the king of Mactan, an island in the Visayas, Philippines, who is known as the first native of the archipelago to have resisted Spanish colonization. The 1898 Philippine Declaration of Independence refers to Lapu-Lapu as "King Kalipulako de Maktan". In the 19th century, the reformist Mariano Ponce used a variant name, "Kalipulako", as one of his pseudonyms Quoted from Wikipedia.

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What is the pen name of mariano ponce?

tikbalang, kalipulako, naning


Mga akda ni mariano ponce?

-Ang mga Filipino sa indo tsina-Ang Literature of the Propaganda Movement


Summary of the movie lapu-lapu?

Lapu-Lapu was the king of Mactan, an island in the Visayas, Philippines, who is known as the first native of the archipelago to have resisted Spanish colonization. He is now regarded as the first Filipino hero.On the morning of April 27, 1521, Lapu-Lapu and the men of Mactan, armed with spears, and kampilan, faced Spanish soldiers led by Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan. In what would later be known as the Battle of Mactan, Magellan, and several of his men were killed.According to Sulu oral tradition, Lapu-Lapu was a Muslim chieftain, and was also known as "Kaliph Pulaka".[3] The people of Bangsamoro, the Islamic homeland in the Philippine Islands, consider him to be a Muslim and a member of the Tausug ethnic group.[4] A variant of the name, as written by Carlos Calao, a 17th century Chinese-Spanish poet in his poem "Que Dios Le Perdone" (Spanish, "That God May Forgive Him") is "Cali Pulacu".The 1898 Philippine Declaration of Independence refers to Lapu-Lapu as "King Kalipulako de Maktan".[6] In the 19th century, the reformist Mariano Ponce used a variant name, "Kalipulako", as one of his pseudonyms.


A Biography of Lapu-Lapu a Filipino hero?

Biography Born : 1491 Death : 1542 Achievement Lapu-Lapu was the king of Mactan, an island in the Visayas, Philippines, who is known as the first native of the archipelago to have resisted Spanish colonization. He is now regarded as the first Filipino hero. On the morning of April 27, 1521, Lapu-Lapu and the men of Mactan, armed with spears and kampilan, faced Spanish soldiers led by Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan. In what would later be known as the Battle of Mactan, Magellan and several of his men were killed. According to Sulu oral tradition, Lapu-Lapu was a Muslim chieftain, and was also known as " Kaliph Pulaka". The people of Bangsamoro, the Moro homeland in the Philippines, consider him to be a Muslim and a member of the Tausug ethnic group. A variant of the name, as written by Carlos Calao, a 17th century Chinese-Spanish poet in his poem Que Dios Le Perdone ( Spanish, "That God May Forgive Him") is "Cali Pulacu". The 1898 Philippine Declaration of Independence refers to Lapu-Lapu as "King Kalipulako de Maktan". In the 19th century, the reformist Mariano Ponce used a variant name, "Kalipulako", as one of his pseudonyms.


Who are the members of the propagandista?

Ang mga Propagandista:Graciano Lopez JaenaMarcelo H. del Pilar ("Plaridel")Dr. Jose Rizal ("Dimas Alang" & "Laong Laan")Antonio Luna ("Taga-Ilog")Mariano Ponce ("Tikbalang", "Naning" & "Kalipulako")Jose Maria Panganiban ("Jomapa")Eduardo de LetePedro PaternoIsabelo de los ReyesDominador Gomez ("Ramiro Franco")Pedro Serrano LaktawJose AlejandrinoReference: Frontiers I by Cristobal Pagoso, et al.13. Felix Resurreccion Hildago-( painter of "The Christian virgins Exposed to the Populace")14. Juan Luna - (painter of "Spoliarium" not spolarium)15. Gregorio Sancianco


What is a propagandists in Philippines?

Filipino Propagandist1. Graciano Lopez Jaena 2. Marcelo H. Del Pilar3. Dr. Jose Rizal4. Antonio Luna5. Mariano Ponce6. Jose Maria Panganiban7. Eduardo de Lete8. Pedro Paterno9. Isabelo de los Reyes10. Dominador Gomez11. Pedro Laktaw12. Jose AlejandrinoJose Rizal (1861 - 1896), a proponent of Filipino nationalism wrote several works with highly nationalistic and revolutionary tendencies. For chapter summaries see Get Higher Grades In Noli Me Tangere and Understanding El FilibusterismoJ☻sÉ Pr☻taci☻ Rizal MÉrcad☻ y Al☻nz☻ RÉal☻nda (June 19, 1861 - December 30, 1896), the "Pride of the Malay Race" and "The Great Malayan," is the national hero of the Philippines.As a polyglot, he mastered 22 languages including Catalan, Chinese, English, French, German, Greek, Hebrew, Japanese, Latin, Malay, Sanskrit, Spanish, Tagalog, and other Philippine languages.As a polymath, he was also an architect, artist, educator, economist, ethnologist, scientific farmer, historian, inventor, journalist, linguist, musician, mythologist, nationalist, naturalist, novelist, ophthalmologist, physician, poet, propagandist, sculptor, and sociologist.A famous patriot, the anniversary of Rizal's death, December 30, is now celebrated as a holiday in the Philippines, called Rizal Day. The seventh of the eleven children of Francisco Mercado and Teodora Alonzo. José Rizal was born into a prosperous middle class Filipino family in the town of Calamba in the Province of Laguna. Dominican friars granted the family the privilege of the lease of a hacienda and an accompanying rice farm, but contentious litigation followed; later, Valeriano Weyler y Nicolau had the buildings destroyed. Rizal is the descendant of Domingo Lam-co, a Chinese immigrant who sailed to the Philippines from Amoy, China in the mid 17th century (see Chinese Filipino). Lam-co married Inez de la Rosa, a Sangley native of Luzon. To free his descendants from the racist anti-Chinese policies of the Spanish authorities, Lam-co changed the family surname to the Spanish surname "Mercado" (market) so that they would not forget their Chinese merchant roots. As José became more embroiled in controversy, his elder brother and mentor Paciano advised him to change his name to protect the Mercados from Spanish authority. José changed his surname from Mercado to his middle name, "Rizal." The name is derived from Spanish "rizal" or "ricial," meaning "verdant" or "green" (as ricestalk), the main agricultural crop of their family industry. Aside from his indigenous Malay and Chinese ancestry, recent genealogical research has found that José had traces of Spanish, Japanese and Negrito ancestry. His maternal great-great-grandfather (Teodora's great-grandfather) is Eugenio Ursua, a descendant of Japanese settlers, who married a Filipina named Benigna (surname unknown). These two gave birth to Regina Ursua who married a Sangley mestizo from Pangasinán named Atty. Manuel de Quintos, Teodora's grandfather. Their daughter Brígida de Quintos married a mestizo (half-caste Spaniard) named Lorenzo Alberto Alonzo, the father of Teodora. He first studied under Justiniano Cruz in Biñan, Laguna. He went to Manila to study at the Ateneo Municipal de Manila (now Ateneo de Manila University) where he received his Bachelor of Arts in 1877. He continued his education in the Ateneo Municipal to obtain a degree in land surveying and assessor, and at the same time in the University of Santo Tomas where he studied Philosophy and Letters. Upon learning that his mother was going blind, he then decided to study medicine (ophthalmology) in the University of Santo Tomas, but did not complete it because he felt that Filipinos were being discriminated by the Dominicans who operated the University. Against his father's wishes, he traveled to Madrid and studied medicine at the Universidad Central de Madrid where he earned the degree, Licentiate in Medicine. His education continued at the University of Paris and the University of Heidelberg where he earned a second doctorate. Marcelo Hilario del Pilar y Gatmaitan (August 30, 1850-July 4, 1896) was a celebrated figure in the Philippine Revolution and a leading propagandist for reforms in the Philippines. Popularly known as Plaridel, he was the editor and co-publisher of La Solidaridad. He tried to marshal the nationalist sentiment of the Filipino ilustrados, or bourgeoisie, against Spanish imperialism. Marcelo H. del Pilar was born in Cupang (now Barangay San Nicolas), Bulacan, Bulacan, on August 30, 1850, to cultured parents Julián Hilario del Pilar and Blasa Gatmaitan. He studied at the Colegio de San José and later at the University of Santo Tomas, where he obtained his law degree in 1880. Fired by a sense of justice against the abuses of the clergy, del Pilar attacked bigotry and hypocrisy and defended in court the impoverished victims of racial discrimination. He preached the gospel of work, self-respect, and human dignity. His mastery of Tagalog, his native language, enabled him to arouse the consciousness of the masses to the need for unity and sustained resistance against the Spanish tyrants. In 1882, del Pilar founded the newspaper Diariong Tagalog to propagate democratic liberal ideas among the farmers and peasants. In 1888, he defended José Rizal's polemical writings by issuing a pamphlet against a priest's attack, exhibiting his deadly wit and savage ridicule of clerical follies. In 1888, fleeing from clerical persecution, del Pilar went to Spain, leaving his family behind. In December 1889, he succeeded Graciano López Jaena as editor of the Filipino reformist periodical La Solidaridad in Madrid. He promoted the objectives of the paper by contacting liberal Spaniards who would side with the Filipino cause. Under del Pilar, the aims of the newspaper were expanded to include removal of the friars and the secularization of the parishes; active Filipino participation in the affairs of the government; freedom of speech, of the press, and of assembly; wider social and political freedoms; equality before the law; assimilation; and representation in the Spanish Cortes, or Parliament. Del Pilar's difficulties increased when the money to support the paper was exhausted and there still appeared no sign of any immediate response from the Spanish ruling class. Before he died of tuberculosis caused by hunger and enormous privation, del Pilar rejected the assimilationist stand and began planning an armed revolt. He vigorously affirmed this conviction: "Insurrection is the last remedy, especially when the people have acquired the belief that peaceful means to secure the remedies for evils prove futile." This idea inspired Andres Bonifacio's Katipunan, a secret revolutionary organization. Del Pilar's militant and progressive outlook derived from the classic Enlightenment tradition of the French philosophies and the scientific empiricism of the European bourgeoisie. Part of this outlook was transmitted by Freemasonry, to which Del Pilar subscribed. "Plaridel's writings in Tagalog were forceful. Rizal's writings in Spanish were not understood by most Filipinos." Plaridel was the pen name of Marcelo H. del Pilar, one of the great figures of the Philippine Propaganda Movement, the heroic group whose writings inspired the Philippine Revolution. He wrote "Dasalan at Tuksuhan" and also made a parody of "Our Father", where the "father" was the friar who in a way, abused the Filipinos back then. Plaridel is the chosen "patron saint" of today's journalists, as his life and works prized freedom of thought and opinion most highly, loving independence above any material gain.[who?] He died of tuberculosis in abject poverty in Barcelona, Spain, 1896. Mariano Ponce (March 23, 1863-May 23, 1918) was a Filipino physician who was a leader of the Propaganda Movement that spurred the Philippine Revolution against Spanish in 1896. He was born in Baliwag, Bulacan where he completed his primary education. He later enrolled at the Colegio de San Juan de Letran and took up medicine at the University of Santo Tomas. In 1881, he left for Europe to continue his medical studies at the Unversidad Central de Madrid. While he was studying in Spain, he joined Marcelo del Pilar, Graciano Lopez Jaena and Jose Rizal in the Propaganda Movement which espoused Filipino representation in the Spanish Cortes and reforms in the Spanish colonial administration of the Philippines. He wrote in the propaganda publication La Solidaridad under several pseudonyms, including Naning, Kalipulako and Tikbalang. He was briefly imprisoned when the revolution broke out in August 1896 but was later released. Fearing another arrest, he fled to France and later went to Hong Kong where he joined a group of Filipinos who served as the international front of the ongoing revolution. In 1898, Emilio Aguinaldo chose him to represent the First Philippine Republic in Japan to seek aid and purchase arms. He went to Yokohama on June 29, 1898. During his stay, he met and befriended Sun Yat Sen, first president of the Republic of China (Sun Yat Sen also supported Philippine Independence by supplying him with arms) and even show sympathy to the Chinese. Mariano married a Japanese woman named Okiyo Udanwara. With the help of a Filipino-Japanese named Jose Ramos Ishikawa he purchased weapons and munition for the revolution. But the shipment did not reach the country due to a typhoon off the coast of Formosa. When he returned to the Philippines, he was made director of El Renacimiento in 1909. He also joined the Nacionalista Party and established El Ideal, the party's official organ. He later ran for a seat in the Philippine Assembly and was elected assemblyman for the second district of Bulacan. Ponce wrote his memoirs, Cartas Sobre La Revolucion, before he died in Hong Kong.


What are the literature in the period of enlightenment?

1. o The Period of Enlightenment (1872-1898) o 2. o Historical Background o After 300 years of passivity under Spanish rule, the Filipino spirit reawakened when the 3 priests Gomez, Burgos and Zamora were guillotined without sufficient evidence of guilt. This occurred on the 17 th of February. This was buttressed with the spirit of liberalism when the Philippines opened its doors to world trade and with the coming of a liberal leader in the person of Governor Carlos Maria de la Torre. o The Spaniards were unable to suppress the tide of rebellion among the Filipinos. 3. o The once religious spirit transformed itself into one of nationalism and the Filipinos demanded changes in the government and in the church. o A. The Propaganda Movement (1872-1896) o This movement was spearheaded mostly by the intellectual middle-class like Jose Rizal, Marcelo del Pilar; Graciano Lopez Jaena, Antonio Luna, Mariano Ponce, Jose Ma. Panganiban, and Pedro Paterno. The objectives of this movement were to seek reforms and changes like the following: 4. 1. To get equal treatment for the Filipinos and the Spaniards under the law. 2. To make the Philippines a colony of Spain. 3. To restore Filipino representation in the Spanish Cortes. 4. To Filipinize the parishes. 5. To give the Filipinos freedom of speech, of the press, assembly and for redress of grievances. 5. o B. Highlights of the Propaganda Movement o o There were three principal leaders of the Propaganda movement. They were Jose P. Rizal, Marcelo H. del Pilar and Graciano Lopez Jaena. Here are highlights about them and what they have done for our country. o o DR. JOSE P. RIZAL o o Jose Protacio Rizal Mercado Alonzo y Realonda was born on June 19, 1861 at Calamba, Laguna. His first teacher was his mother Teodora Alonozo. He studied at the Ateneo de Manila, started medicine at UST and finished at the Universidad Central of Madrid. He also studied at the University of Berlin, Leipzig and Heidelberg. 6. He died by musketry in the hands of the Spaniards on December 30, 1896 on charges of sedition and rebellion against the Spaniards. His pen-name was Laong Laan and Dimasalang. His books and writings: 1. NOLI ME TANGERE. This was the novel that gave spirit to the propaganda movement and paved the way to the revolution against Spain. In this book, he courageously exposed the evils in the Spanish-run government in the Philippines. 7. The Spaniards prohibited the reading of this novel but a lot of translations were able to enter stealthily in the country even if it means death to those caught in possession of them. The NOLI gave Philippine literature the immortal characters Maria Clara, Juan Crisostomo Ibarra, Elias, Sisa, Pilosofong Tasio, Doña Victorina, Kapitana Maria, Basilio and Crispin, Rizal had a powerful pen in the delineation of these characters. 2. EL FILIBUSTERISMO. This is a sequel to the NOLI. 8. o While the NOLI exposed the evils in society, the FILI exposed those in the government and in the church. However, the NOLI has been dubbed the novel of society while that of FILI is that of politics. o 3. MI ULTIMO ADIOS (My Last Farewell). This was a poem by Rizal while he was incarcerated at Fort Santiago and is one that can compare favorably with the best in the world. It was only after his death when his name was affixed to the poem. 9. 4. SOBRE LA INDOLENCIA DE LOS FILIPINOS (On the Indolence of the Filipinos). An essay on the so-called Filipino indolence and an evaluation of the reasons for such allegations. 5. FILIPINAS DENTRO DE CIEN AÑOS (The Philippines within a Century). An essay predicting the increasing influence of the US in the Philippines and the decreasing interest of Europe here. Rizal predicted that if there is any other colonizer of the Philippines in the future, it would be the US. 6. A LA JUVENTUD FILIPINA (To the Filipino Youth). A poem Rizal dedicated to the Filipino youth studying at UST. 10. o 7. EL CONSEJO DE LES DIOSES (The Council of the Gods). An allegorical play manifesting admiration for Cervantes. o 8. JUNTO AL PASIG (Beside the Pasig River). Written by Rizal when he was 14 years of age. o 9. ME PIDEN VERSOS (You asked Me for Verses); 1882 and A LAS FLORES DE HEIDELBERG (To the Flowers of Heidelberg). Two poems manifesting Rizal's unusual depth of emotion. o 10. NOTAS A LA OBRA SUCESOS DE LAS FILIPINAS FOR EL DR. ANTONIO DE MORGA (Notes on Philippine Events by Dr. Antonio de Morga): 1889 11. 11. P. JACINTO: MEMORIAS DE UN ESTUDIANTE DE MANILA (P. Jacinto: Memoirs of a Student of Manila) 1882 12. DIARIO DE VIAJE DE NORTE AMERICA (Diary of a Voyage to North America) MARCELO H. DEL PILAR Marcelo H. del Pilar is popularly known for his pen name of Plaridel, Pupdoh, Piping Dilat and Dolores Manapat. He was born at Cupang, San Nicolas, Bulacan on August 30, 1850. 12. His parents were Julian H. del Pilar, noted Filipino writer and Biasa Gatmaita. His brother was the priest Fr. Toribio del Pilar who was banished to Marianas in 1872. Because there were many children in the family, Marcelo gave up his share of his inheritance for his other brothers and sisters. Marcelo started schooling at the school of Mr. Flores and then transferred to that of San Jose before UST. His last year in law school was interrupted for 8 years after he had quarrel with the parish priest during a baptism at San Miguel, Manila in 1880. 13. o He established the Diariong Tagalog in 1883 where he exposed the evils of the Spanish government in the Philippines and in order to avoid the false accusations hurried at him by the priests. To avoid banishment, he was forced to travel to Spain in 1888. o He was assisted by Fr. Serrano Laktaw in publishing a different Cathecism and Passion Book wherein they made fun of the priests. They also made the DASALAN AT TOCSOHAN and KAIINGAT KAYO taken from the word IGAT, a kind of snake fish caught in politics. o 14. Upon his arrival in Spain, he replaced Graciano Lopez Jaena as editor of LA SOLIDARIDAD, a paper which became the vehicle thru which reforms in the government could be worked out. This did not last long for he got sick and even to reach Hong Kong from where he could arouse his countrymen. He died of tuberculosis in Spain but before he died, he asked his companions to tell his wife and children that he was sorry he wasn't able to bid them goodbye; to tell others about the fate of our countrymen and to continue helping the country. 15. o Plaridel has truly earned a niche in the history of our nation. Even today, countless streets have been named after him. The former Kingwa has been named Plaridel, the Malolos High School is now Marcelo H. del Pilar High School and above all, his patriotism and bravery will remain alive in our memories. o Writings of Marcelo H. del Pilar o o 1. PAGIBIG SA TINUBUANG LUPA (Love of Country). Translated from the Spanish AMOR PATRIA of Rizal, published on August 20, 1882, in Diariong Tagalog. o 16. 2. KAIINGAT KAYO (Be Careful). A humorous and sarcastic dig in answer to Fr. Jose Rodriquez in the novel NOLI of Rizal, published in Barcelona in 1888. He used Dolores Manapat as pen-name here. 3. DASALAN AT TOCSOHAN (Prayers and Jokes). Similar to a cathecism but sarcastically done agains the parish priests, published in Barcelona in 1888. Because of this, del Pilar was called "filibuster." Done in admirable tone of supplication and excellent use of Tagalog. 4. ANG CADAQUILAAN NG DIOS (God's Goodness). Published in Barcelona, it was also like a cathecism sarcastically aimed against the parish priests but also contains a philosophy of the power and intelligence of God and an appreciation for and love for nature. 17. o 5. SAGOT SA ESPANYA SA HIBIK NG PILIPINAS (Answer to Spain on the Plea of the Filipinos). A poem pleading for change from Spain but that Spain is already old and weak to grant any aid to the Philippines. This poem is in answer to that of Hermenigildo Flores' Hibik sa Pilipinas (A Plea from the Philippines). o 6. DUPLUHAN…DALIT…MGA BUGTONG (A poetical contest in narrative sequence, psalms, riddles). A compilation of poems on the oppression by the priests in the Philippines. 18. 7. LA SOBERANIA EN PILIPINAS (Sovereignty in the Philippines). This shows the injustices of the friars to the Pilipinos. 8. POR TELEFONO (By Telephone) 9. PASIONG DAPAT IPAG-ALAB NG PUSO NG TAONG BABASA (Passion that should arouse the hearts of the readers) GRACIANO LOPEZ JAENA (1856-1896) A most notable hero and genius of the Philippines, Graciano Lopez Jaena was born on December 18, 1856 and died on January 20, 1896. 19. o The pride of Jaro, Iloilo, he won the admiration of the Spaniards and Europeans. He is a known writer and orator in the Philippines. He wrote 100 speeches which were published by Remigio Garcia, former bookstore owner in Manila Filatica and which are still read up to no by modern Filipinos. o o Lopez Jaena left the Philippines in 1887 with the help of Don Claudio Lopez, a rich uncle, in order to escape punishment form his enemies and arrived at Valencia, the center of the Republican movement of the Spaniards. He gained the acquaintance of the high officials like Piy Margall, Morayta, Moret, Castelar, and Salmeron. 20. From Valencia, he moved to Barcelona where he established the first magazine LA SOLIDARIDAD. This later became the official voice of the Association Hispano de Filipinas (a Filipino-Spanish Association) composed of Filipinos and Spaniards who worked for reforms in the Philippines. Because of this, Jaena successfully showed the Spaniards and the people of the world how a newspaperman can introduce changes in law and reforms towards a better life and progress. Jaena, although he didn't become a professor, was also a teacher in a sense to his friends and relatives in the Philippines. 21. o Like Antonio Maria Regidor, Tomas G. del Rosario and Felipe Calderon, he stood for the separation of church and state for free education, better government and schools, freedom of worship and for an independent and free university. o o He sided with Rizal in the controversy between Rizal and del Pilar over who should head the Association Hispano de Filipinas in Madrid. He returned to the Philippines to ask for donations to continue a new government called El Latigo Nacional or Pambansang Latigo. He sold the rights of La Solidaridad ot del Pilar who had become a lawyer and had brought in money from his sojourn in Spain. 22. Graciano Lopez Jaena died in a charity hospital in Barcelona on January 20, 1896, eleven months before his best friend Rizal was shot at the Luneta on December 30, 1896. A. The Works of Graciano Lopez Jaena 1. ANG FRAY BOTOD (Friar Botod). One of his works written in Jaro, Iloilo in 1876, six years after the Cavite Revolt attacking the friars in the Philippines. He exposed how some of the friars were greedy, ambitious and immoral. 23. o 2. LA HIJA DEL FRAILE (The Child of the Friar) and EVERYTING IS HAMBUG (Everything is mere show). Here Jaena explains the tragedy of marrying a Spaniard. o o 3. SA MGA PILIPINO...1891… A speech which aimed to improve the condition of the Filipinos to become free and progressive. o 4. TALUMPATING PAGUNITA KAY KOLUMBUS (An Oration to Commemorate Columbus). A speech he delivered in Madrid on the 39 th anniversary of the discovery of America 24. 5. EN HONOR DEL PRESIDENTE MORAYTA DE LA ASSOCIACION HISPANO FILIPINO 1884. Here he praised Gen. Morayta for his equal treatment of the Filipinos. 6. EN HONOR DE LOS ARTISTAS LUNA Y RESURRECCION HIDALGO. A sincere expression of praise for the paintings of Hidalgo on the condition of the Filipinos under the Spaniards. 7. AMOR A ESPAÑA O A LAS JOVENES DE MALOLOS (Love for Spain or To the Youth of Malolos). The theme is about how girls were taught Spanish in schools and whose teachers were the governors-general of the place. 25. 8. EL BANDOLERISMO EN PILIPINAS (Banditry in the Philippines). Jaena refuted the existence of banditry in the Philippines and of how there should be laws on robbery and other reforms. 9. HONOR EN PILIPINAS (Honor in the Philippines). The triumphant exposition of Luna, Resurrecion and Pardo de Tavera of the thesis that intellect or knowledge gives honor to the Philippines. 10. PAG-ALIS SA BUWIS SA PILIPINAS (Abolition of Taxes in the Philippines) 11. INSTITUCION NG PILIPINAS (Sufferings of the Philippines). Jaena refers here to the wrong management of education in the Philippines 1887. 26. B. OTHER PROPAGANDISTS ANTONIO LUNA Antonio Luna was a pharmacist who was banished by the Spaniards to Spain. He joined the Propaganda Movement and contributed his writings to LA SOLIDARIDAD. Most of his works dealt with Filipino customs and others were accusations about how the Spaniards ran the government. His pen name was Tagailog. He died at the age of 33 in June 1899. He was put to death by the soldiers of Aguinaldo because of his instant rise to fame which became a threat to Aguinaldo. 27. o Some of his works are: o o 1. NOCHE BUENA (Christmas Eve). It pictured true Filipino life. o o 2. SE DEVIERTEN (How They Diverted Themselves). A dig at a dance of the Spaniards where the people were very crowded. o 3. LA TERTULIA FILIPINA (A Filipino Conference or Feast). Depicts a Filipino custom which he believed was much better than the Spanish. o 28. 4. POR MADRID (For Madrid). A denouncement of Spaniards who claim that the Philippines is a colony of Spain but who think of Filipinos as foreigners when it comes to collecting taxes for stamps. 5. LA CASA DE HUEPEDES (The Landlady's House). Depicts a landlady who looks for boarders not for money but in order to get a husband for her child. MARIANO PONCE Mariano Ponce became an editor-in-chief, biographer and researcher of the Propaganda Movement. He used Tikbalang, Kalipulako, and Naning as pennames. The common themes of his works were the values of education. He also wrote about how the Filipinos were oppressed by the foreigners and of the problems of his countrymen. Among his writings were: 29. 1. MGA ALAMAT NG BULACAN (Legend of Bulacan). Contains legends, and folklores of his native town. 2. PAGPUGOT KAY LONGINOS (The Beheading of Longinos). A play shown at the plaza of Malolos, Bulacan. 3. SOBRE FILIPINOS (About the Filipinos) 4. ANG MGA PILIPINO SA INDO-TSINA (The Filipinos in Indo-China) PEDRO PATERNO Pedro Paterno was a scholar, dramatic, researcher and novelist of the Propaganda Movement. 30. o He also joined the Confraternity of Masons and the Asociacion Hispano-Pilipino in order to further the aims of the Movement. He was the first Filipino writer who escaped censorship of the press during the last day of the Spanish colonization. o The following were a few of his wrtings: o o 1. NINAY. The first social novel in Spanish by a Filipino. o 2. A MI MADRE (To My Mother). Shows the importance of a mother especially in the home. o 3. SAMPAGUITA Y POESIAS VARIAS (Sampaguitas and Varied Poems). A collection of his poems. o o 31. JOSE MA. PANGANIBAN Jose Ma. Panganiban hid his identity behind his penname JORMAPA. He was also known for having photographic mind. He was a member of a number of movements for the country. Some of his writings were: 1. ANG LUPANG TINUBUAN (My Native Land) 2. ANG AKING BUHAY (My Life) 3. SU PLANO DE ESTUDIO (Your Study Plan) 4. EL PENSAMIENTO (The Thinking) 32. C. Period of Active Revolution (1896-1898) Historical Background The Filipinos did not get the reforms demanded by the propagandists. The government turned deaf ears to these petitions; oppression continued and the church and the government became even more oppressive to the Filipinos. The good intentions of Spain were reversed by the friars who were lording it over in the Philippines. Because of this, not a few of the Filipinos affiliated with the La Liga Filipina (a civic organization suspected of being revolutionary and which triggered Rizal's banishment to Dapitan). Like Andres Bonifacio, Emilio Jacinto, Apolinario Mabini, Jose Palma, and Pio Valenzuela decided that there was no other way except to revolt. 33. o The gist of literature contained mostly accusations against the government and was meant to arouse the people to unite and to prepare for independence. o D. Highlights of the Active Revolution o The noted leaders of this period were Andres Bonifacio, Emilio Jacinto and Apolinario Mabini. These are their contributions to our country. 34. ANDRES BONIFACIO Andres Bonifacio is best known as the Father of Filipino Democracy, but more than others, as the Father of the Katipunan because he led in establishing the Kataas-taasan, Kagalang-galanga Katipunan ng mga Anak ng Bayan (KKK). Andres Bonifacio came from a poor family and it is said that what he learned he got from the school of experience. He was a voracious reader and among those he loved to read which aroused his revolutionary spirit were the NOLI and the FILI of Rizal. 35. o He joined the La Liga Filipina founded by Rizal in 1892. He established the Katipunan which triggered the spirit of freedom especially when Rizal was banished to Dapitan, Mindanao. o Bonifacio is better known as the great Revolutionary rather than a writer but he also wrote things which paved the way for the revolution and which also became part of our literature. Among his works were: 36. 1. ANG DAPAT MABATID NG MGA TAGALOG (What the Tagalogs Should Know) 2. KATUNGKULANG GAGAWIN NG MGA ANA NG BAYAN (Obligations of Our Countrymen). This is an outline of obligations just like the 10 commandments of God. 3. PAG-IBIG SA TINUBUAN LUPA (Love of One's Native Land). A poem with a title similar to that of Marcelo H. del Pilar. 4. HULING PAALAM (Last Farewell). A translation of Mi Ultimo Adios of Rizal in Tagalog. 37. o APOLINARIO MABINI o Apolinario Mabini is known in literature and history as the Sublime Paralytic and the Brains of the Revolution. o EMILIO JACINTO o Emilio Jacinto was the intelligent assistant of Andres Bonifacio in the establishment of the Katipuna. He is called the Brains of the Katipunan. He edited Kalayaan (Freedom) a Katipunan newspaper. Bonifacio withdrew his writing of the Kartilya in deference to Jacinto's work as secretary of the Katipunan. His Kartilya was the one followed by the members of the organization. Here are few of his writings: 38. 1. KARTILYA NG KATIPUNAN (A primer book on the Katipunan) 2. LIWANAG AT DILIM (Light and Darkness). A collection of essays on different subjects like freedom, work, faith, government, love of country. 3. A MI MADRE (To My Mother). A touching ode to his mother. 4. A LA PATRIA (To My Country). His masterpiece. 39. He was born in Talaga, Tanauan, Batangas on July 22, 1864. Because he was born of a poor family he had to work in order to study. He became known to his professors and classmates at Letran and the UST because of his sharp memory and the simple clothes he used to wear throughout his schooling. He became the right-hand of Emilio Aguinaldo when the latter founded his Republic in Malolos. His contributions to literature were writing on government society, philosophy and politics. Here are some of his works: 1. EL VERDADERO DECALOGO (The True Decalogue or Ten Commandments). This was his masterpiece and his aim here was to propagate the spirit of nationalism. 40. o 2. EL DESAROLLO Y CAIDA DE LA REPUBLICA (The Rise and Fall of the Philippine Republic) o 3. SA BAYANG PILIPINO (To the Filipino Nation) o 4. PAHAYAG (News) o OTHER REVOLUTIONISTS o JOSE PALMA o Jose Palma became popular because of his Himno Nacional Filipino (The Philippine National Anthem) which was set to music by Julian Felipe. 41. He was born in Tondo, Manila on June 6, 1876. His brother Rafael Palma became the president of the UP. He joined the revolution against the Americans together with Gregorio del Pilar, the youngest Filipino general who died during the revolution. Aside from the National Anthem, here are his other works: 1. MELANCOLIAS (Melancholies). A collection of his poems. 2. DE MI JARDIN (In My Garden). A poem expressing one's longings for his sweetheart. 42. NEWSPAPERS DURING THE REVOLUTION In the effort of the Revolutionists to spread to the world their longings for their country, many newspapers were put up during the Revolutionary period. They were: 1. HERALDO DE LA REVOLUCION. Printed the decrees of the Revolutiary Government, news and works in Tagalog that aroused nationalism. 2. LA INDEPENDENCIA (Independence). Edited by Antonio Luna and whose aim was for Philippine Independence. 3. LA REPUBLICA PILIPINA (The Philippine Republic). Established by Pedro Paterno in 1898. 4. LA LIBERTAD (Liberty). Edited by Clemente Zulueta. 43. o Exercises o 1. How does the filipino spirit reawaken after 300 years of passivity under spanish rule? o 2-3 Give 2 objectives of Propaganda Movement to seek reforms and changes. o 4. This is a sequel for the NOLI ME TANGERE o 5. Marcelo H. Del Pilar established the _______in 1882, where he expressed the evils of the spanish government in the Philippines o 6. This became the official voice of the Associacion Hispano de Filipinas 44. o 7. He is the Father of Filipino Democracy and the Father of the Katipunan o 8. He is the Brains of the Katipunan o 9. The Sublime Paralytic and the Brains of the Revolution o 10. He became popular because of his Himno Nacional Filipino (The Philippine National Anthem)