The man we know as Octavian was Julius Caesar's adopted son and heir. He was a master politician, a military victor, and became the sole ruler of Rome, changing the government from republic to principate. He was voted the title "Augustus" by the senate and from that time on he was known as Caesar Augustus or simply Augustus. He is sometimes referred to as the first Roman emperor by historians, although the Romans never used the word "emperor".
Octavian was the successor of Julius Caesar, and the first emperor of Rome.
Octavian/Augustus died of natural causes at his villa at Nola. He was 77 years old and the ancient writers say that he caught a chill and developed a fever.
Octavian initially gained power and recognition by cultivating friendships with men such as Cicero, and the two consuls, Pansa and Hirtius. After some recognition, he engaged in a series of sharp political moves and became a member of the second triumvirate. His portion of the empire was Italy and surrounding areas so he was able to consolidate his power and eventually win the civil war against Mark Antony.
"Augustus" was the title Octavian was given by the senate. His name was Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus, or Octavian. Augustus was a title that was given him and he is commonly known by that title or name.