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why are some districts redrawn after a census?

Districts are re-drawn for two reasons. The first is if population shifts change the number of Congressional representatives for a state. If the population decreases sufficiently enough relative to other states (which may mean its population has grown, but not as rapidly as other states) or if it increases sufficiently compared to other states, then it may lose or gain one or more representatives in Congress. If that happens the state's area is re-divided into the correct number of districts, with an attempt made to keep the populations of the districts fairly even. But re-districting can be done every 10 years following the Federal census, and often (not always) the legislative body within the state has the power to draw district boundaries. Whatever party is in power may choose to re-draw boundaries to make their position better by increasing the number of "safe" districts (or de-stabilizing the district of a strong opponent). "Gerrymandering" has a very long and "distinguished" history.

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Q: Why are some districts redrawn after a census?
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