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Ambrigio Lorenzeth

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Q: Who did the Sienese government commission a series of frescoes paintings from?
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Who painted three scenes called the battle of san romano?

Paolo Uccello painted the three scenes called the Battle of San Romano. It was a battle between Sienese and Florentine forces in 1432.

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Is Paolo Uccello an renaissance artist?

yes duhh The Battle of SAN ROMANO was fought in June, 1432. Ucello painted at least three versions of the fight between the Italian city-states of FLORENCE and SIENA. This was a victory for the Florentines, and his main panel may have hung in the Palace of the Medicis in Florence. In his painting, Paolo Ucello glorifies the victorious Florentines as they "rout" the Sienese amidst the striking orange groves and rose arbors which beautify much of Italy's northern landscape.

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Who is flying figure in lorenzetti's good government?

"Good government" is sometimes used as a generic name for the entire cycle of six frescoes in the Sala della Pace of the Palazzo Pubblico of Siena, so I'll point out all the figures. Good government: Wisdom flies in the top left, above Justice, who carries in her scales two angels representing the two forms of justice: distributive and commutative (though the labels were reversed in a later restoration). A cord drops from the scales into the hands of Concord, who sits with a level plank in her lap (representing equality). the cords then pass through the hands of 24 isocephalic (heads at the same level) figures representing the early Council of 24, later succeeded by the Council of 9, before being passed up to the largest figure, which is identified as the Government of Siena by the black and white clothing, the shield bearing the Virgin Mary (putative Queen of Siena) and the two children Ascius and Senius suckling from a she wolf. Above the head of Government are representations of the three theological virtues, Faith (bearing a cross) Hope (praying for intercession from Christ) and Charity (Flames). Seated on couches to his right and left are allegorical figures of the four Cardinal Virtues (Prudence, Temperance, Fortitude and Justice) as well as Peace and Magnanimity. From right to left, they are: Peace (resting on unused armour, wearing olive laurel and holding an olive branch), Fortitude (mace and shield, surrounded by knights), Prudence, Magnanimity sharing from her bowl, Temperance with an hourglass (from a false etymology), and the second appearance of Justice, bearing a sword and a severed head. In the cityscape of Good Governance, Peace appears for a second time as the safeguard of Concord, there being no need for guards in a city empty of enemies. Nine dancing girls in the foreground represent either the Council of Nine or the Nine Muses, or simply act as an expression of happiness (though public dancing was at that time illegal in Siena). To the left is a marriage party, above are craftsmen busy at all the various trades of the city, from goldsmithy to weaving to preaching and selling of goods. Entering the city to the right is a caravan bearing the many goods of the countryside and foreign lands. Outside this city, the fields are full of grain being harvested by peasants, olive groves and orchards give up their fruit, animals are raised, slaughtered, and hunted; foodstuffs from every season are being gathered simultaneously, guarded over by the flying figure of Security, the watchdog of Concord in lands where safety is guaranteed only through force of arms. On the opposite side of the hall is the pantheon of Bad Government. Presided over by the fanged and horned figure of Tyranny, who clutches in her hand a golden cup as a symbol of Babylon. At her feet sits a goat, the traditional symbol of Lust. To the left are the figures of Cruelty (strangling a baby), Betrayal (carrying a chimerical lamb-scorpion), and Fraud (whose drapery partially conceals bat wings and clawed feet). To the right are Fury (a bestial dog/bull/man carrying a short dagger and standing over a mound of stones, the weapons of an angered mob), Division (clothed in Sienese colours, sawing herself in half - the saw acting as a counterpoint to the plank of concord) and War (dressed in armour and bearing a shield). Above Tyranny fly three more bat-winged women: Avarice, squeezing bags of gold coins in a press; Pride, carrying a sword and twisted yoke to show the folly of seeking glory at the expense of the greater good; and Vainglory, admiring herself in the mirror. Bound and helpless below the pantheon is the desolate figure of Justice, her scales broken and the lines of concord being severed by a soldier. The cityscape is home to roving bands of soldiers and thieves, maiming and killing the people and looting the flaming rubble of the homes. The only craftsman still plying his trade is the blacksmith, turning out piles of weapons. A band of rapacious horsemen are exiting through the gates into the countryside. Flying above the gates and acting bizarrely as a protagonist is the demon-like figure of Fear. The ccountryside itself is a barren wasteland dotted by the ruins of villages. No food is available to the few scattered people beset by raiders and bandits.

How did the Palio DI Siena start?

In ancient Rome, games and gladiatorial combat were quite commonplace. According to legend, the twins Romulus and Remus, suckled by a she-wolf, founded Rome. Romulus killed his twin brother, Remus; Remus' two sons, Senus and Aschius, fearing for their lives, fled north from Rome and came to an Etruscan village built on 3 hills which they eventually named after themselves (SENus and Aschius - Sena, the Latin name for Siena). They introduced to Sena Vetus (Siena) a number of so-called ludic games similar to the gladiatorial games of Rome, their natal city. Some of these games, which were actually mock battles, such as the elmora (a type of joust) and the battaglia de' sassi (a battle of hurling rocks at one's opponents) laid the foundations for the palio, a name coming from the Latin "pallium", meaning "cloth", since the prize originally consisted of a piece of valuable cloth awarded to the victorious contrada, one of the seventeen districts into which the city is divided. The name "palio" therefore refers both to the race itself as well as to the prize awarded to the winning district. These districts, or "contrade" as they are called in Italian, were at one time military companies whose main responsibilities consisted of defending the various holdings and territories of the Republic of Siena. Back in the 11th Century there were about 80 such districts. After the horrendous Black Plague of 1348 many of them disappeared or were incorporated into other districts, eventually numbering 42. In 1729 Violanta di Baviera, who ruled Siena at that time, decreed that the number of districts would be fixed at 17, which is what it remains to this day. The first references to an actual palio race, the so-called "palio alla lunga", or "straight-line palio", since it was run in a straight line, go back to the beginning of the 14th Century. In 1555 the Republic of Siena was defeated by Florentine forces with the aid of Spanish mercenaries. The military societies were disbanded but the Florentines allowed the defeated Sienese to retain the symbols and organizations of their societies, which evolved into the present-day contrade. The focus of the city then turned to within, so that the former "straight-line" palio became the "palio alla rotonda", or "palio in the round" which was raced in the Piazza del Campo, Siena's main square. This first "palio in the round" was raced in 1597 and it has continued in basically the same form up to the present day. The Palio is raced every year on July 2 and August 16 and in each race the number of participating districts is 10, with the remaining seven racing the following year. A special drawing called the "estrazione" takes place at least 30 days prior to each palio to determine which of the previous year's 10 districts will be drawn to become the 8th, 9th and 10th participants of the current year.