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Cards in this guide (67)
selection process for all federal judges

being confirmed by the senate

appellate jurisdiction vs original jurisdiction in federal courts

appellate jurisdiction applies to case that have already been tried by lower courts

how did the 14th amendment affect civil liberties in the united states

it expanded civil liberties by requiring more governments to provide them

what term describes the view that only fundamental bill of rights protections should apply to the states 

selective incorporation

what had Benjamin Gitlow been convicted for in the supreme court case Gitlow  VS New York

publishing a socialist newspaper

which scenario best illustrates a violation of substantive due process

a new law fines book publishers for printing content that is considered unpatriotic 

what was the Gideon VS Wainwright case in 1963

Clarence Gideon was accused of breaking into a pool hall in Florida . he asked for a lawyer , but Florida law at the time only provided for court appointed lawyers in capital / death penalty cases . Gideon lost the original case . but won his appeal to the supreme court , where the court ruled that the 6th amendment right to a lawyer applied to felony cases. if the defendant could not afford a lawyer, the state had to provide one .

what was the Miranda VS Arizona case in 1966

In this landmark decision, the Supreme Court heard several cases in which suspects signed confessions without being informed that they were not legally required to do so. The Court ruled that the Fifth Amendment guarantee against self-incrimination meant the accused must be warned of the right to remain silent and the right to have a lawyer present during questioning. Providing this information is now known as the Miranda warning.

what is a / the Miranda warning 

phrases that inform accused people about their 5th amendment rights .

what is a public defender

a lawyer provided by the government to represent poor clients

what did the supreme court decide in Miranda VS Arizona 

people accused of a crime must be informed of their rights

what is the 14th amendment . and what does it do

 the 14th amendment ensures that the federal government can't limit citizens' basic rights without a good reason (such as public safety)

when was the united states civil war . 

the civil war to place in 1861 – 1865

how many years did the united states civil war last .

4 years 

What was the union

The states that remained part of the United States and fought the Confederacy during the Civil War.

how many slaves were freed after / during the civil war 

nearly 4 million

how did segregation effect  African Americans lives 

 it separated the races in public life. African Americans could not travel, do business, study, or worship with white Americans. When such laws were challenged in court, the states argued that segregation affected everyone equally 

what is civic participation 

Actions or behaviors people take to engage with their community, including both obligations and responsibilities.

What is democracy

A system of government in which the people rule, usually by voting.

what is civic obligation

An action or behavior required by law of all U.S. citizens.

what are some examples of civic obligation 

Every citizen must pay taxes.Every citizen must obey the laws.Every citizen must agree to serve on a jury if selected.Every (male) citizen must register for the military's selective service

what is tax money used for 

traffic lights .   ---> highways , roads , and street repair .  --->  public parks , libraries , and schools . --->  police officers , firefighters,  judges , and public attorneys . ---> medicaid , financial aid for education , low income housing , and homeless shelters. --->

who can be a juror 

any citizen of the united states can be summoned for jury duty at any time . as long as they are :. at least 18 years old . has never been convicted of a felony . not currently on active duty in the military . is not already on another jury. is able to read and write in English 

what is suffrage 

The right to vote.

voting and the fifteenth amendment

The Thirteenth Amendment abolished slavery in 1865, but more work was needed to ensure that African American citizens had equal rights. The passage of the Fifteenth Amendment gave African American men the right to vote, although the law was not upheld in all states.

voting and the nineteenth amendment 

 The women's suffrage movement brought nationwide attention to the unequal treatment of women. Several states had granted women the right to vote by the mid-1800s, but it wasn't until 1920 that all U.S. women were recognized as full citizens.

voting and the twenty fourth amendment 

After the Civil War, some southern states created poll taxes — or fees charged in order to vote — as a way to bypass the Fifteenth Amendment. Since many African American citizens could not afford to pay the tax, they were unable to vote. The Twenty-Fourth Amendment outlawed poll taxes in federal elections.

voting and the twenty sixth amendment 

Because men could be drafted into the military when they were 18, it was deemed unfair that the legal voting age was 21. The Twenty-Sixth Amendment lowered the voting age to 18 so that those eligible for the draft would still have a voice in the nation's decisions.

what are poll taxes and who did it effect 

Even though former slaves were free citizens after the Civil War, the majority of them had very little money. Many southern states passed laws that required voters to pay poll taxes, or fees in order to register to vote. These laws effectively prevented poor African American voters from exercising their constitutional rights.

what was the " literacy test."

Some southern states also passed laws that required literacy tests in order to vote. Since former slaves were not given proper educations before the Civil War and many of them were unable to read, this law was another attempt to prevent African Americans from voting. The literacy tests and poll taxes were often used together.

what was the Grandfather clauses

The poll taxes prevented former slaves from voting, but they also denied poor whites the right to vote. To avoid this, some southern states passed grandfather clauses, which stated that if a person's grandfather had full citizenship rights prior to the Civil War, he was exempt from poll taxes and literacy tests. This ensured that African American citizens would still be denied the right to vote, while poor white citizens would be spared.

what steps where taken to prevent former slaves from voting 

poll taxes , grand father clauses , and the literacy tests

the civil rights movements 

Mass movements in the United States that tried to establish equal rights for members of minority groups and women. The earliest, the African American civil rights movement, began in the 1950s.

the twenty fourth amendment 

The amendment to the Constitution that forbids the levying of a poll tax in primary and general elections for national officials.

what does ratified mean 

Officially approved.

what was the voting rights act of 1965 

A law passed during Lyndon B. Johnson's administration that gave the federal government the power to get involved in state and local elections to prevent racial discrimination in voting.

what are civil rights 

The rights guaranteed to the citizens of a country by their government. Civil rights often focus on creating equal conditions for all.

six significant dates of the civil rights movement 

 MAY 17 , 1954 --> Brown vs Board of Education 1955 - 1956 --> Montgomery bus boycottAugust 28 ,1963  --> March on WashingtonJULY 1 , 1964 --> The Civil Rights Act of 1964  EARLY 1965 --> Selma to Montgomery marches MARCH 15 ,1965  --> The Voting Rights Act of 1965 

what happened march 15 , 1965 the civil rights movement 

the voting act of 1965 After civil rights protesters were met with violence in the Selma to Montgomery marches, President Johnson calls for an act that would change voting rights in the United States. This leads to the drafting of the Voting Rights Act of 1965.

what happened early 1965the civil rights movement 

 Selma to Montgomery marches Martin Luther King Jr. and other civil rights leaders stage protests against African American voter discrimination. The protests are met with violence from law enforcement and gain national attention.

what happened JULY 1 , 1964 the civil rights movement 

the civil rights act of 1964 President Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act, which outlaws most state attempts to segregate African American citizens. However, the act is not effective against voting discrimination.

what happened AUGUST 28 ,1963 the civil rights movements 

 March on Washington Nonviolent protestors across the nation stage demonstrations urging the federal government to take a stand on civil rights. One of the most influential demonstrations is held in 1963 in Washington, D.C., where about 250,000 people gather to press for civil rights.

what happened 1955 - 1956 the civil rights movements 

 Montgomery bus boycott Civil rights activist Rosa Parks refuses to give up her seat on a bus to a white citizen and is arrested. Her actions spark a boycott that lasts almost 13 months and gains national attention.

what happened MAY 17 , 1954 the civil rights movements 

Brown vs Board of Education in  response to public protest, the Supreme Court rules that it is unconstitutional to force African American and white students to attend different schools.

 domestic policy 

The actions a government takes regarding issues within the country.

foreign policy 

A government's interactions with other countries and foreign groups.

Economic policy

Economic policy concerns the way the government collects and spends money and regulates the market. Income tax rates are an example of economic policy.

Social policy

Social policy relates to the way people live their lives. Issues related to family, health care, and education are in this area of policy. One example of a social policy program is Social Security, which provides benefits to the elderly and disabled.

Criminal justice policy

 Rules related to police, trials, and prisons are in the area of criminal justice policy. Some states use the death penalty in cases of murder, which is an example of criminal justice policy.

what is the  democratic process

All of the practices that ensure that the rules of a democracy are followed and that the people have a voice.

what is a citizen 

A person who owes loyalty to and is protected by a country. Citizens of a country have certain rights and responsibilities.

who is able to vote in the federal elections

all u.s citizens 

who is able to vote in state elections 

anyone who lives in that state 

who is able to vote in local elections 

anyone who lives within the area , city ,town  ,ect

voter turnout 

Statistics on how many people vote in an election.

midterm elections 

Nonpresidential federal elections that occur every four years.

voter apathy 

Disinterest in political issues; an unwillingness to participate in the political process.

a citizen must ____ to vote far enough in advance of a election to ensure that they are eligible  

register 

how can you register to vote 

online , by mail ,in person 

what is a political party

An organization of citizens with similar views that seeks to have its members elected to government offices.

what is the democratic party 

A political party that originated in the late 1700s and is still active today. Its membership and beliefs have changed many times. Throughout the 20th century, the Democratic Party shifted to support more liberal policies.

what is the republican party

A political party started in the 1850s that is still active today. Although the Republican Party has generally pursued pro-business economic policies, its social policies have become more conservative over time.

primary elections

Elections in which voters determine a political party's nominee for a general election.

canvassing 

Going door-to-door or calling people on the phone to let them know about an issue, cause, or political party.

canvassing examples 

door to door __ phone call __  mailing letters __  going to public events __ emails 

campaigning 

even though political parties are active throughout the year , they tend to be especially busy during a election season . this could be a exciting time to volunteer for a political party . task could include printing posters and campaign materials canvassing local events coordinating fund - raisers calling undecided voters 

what are some campaigning tasks for a volunteers 

printing posters and campaign materials canvassing local events coordinating fund - raisers calling undecided voters 

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