being confirmed by the senate
appellate jurisdiction applies to case that have already been tried by lower courts
it expanded civil liberties by requiring more governments to provide them
publishing a socialist newspaper
a new law fines book publishers for printing content that is considered unpatriotic
Clarence Gideon was accused of breaking into a pool hall in Florida . he asked for a lawyer , but Florida law at the time only provided for court appointed lawyers in capital / death penalty cases . Gideon lost the original case . but won his appeal to the supreme court , where the court ruled that the 6th amendment right to a lawyer applied to felony cases. if the defendant could not afford a lawyer, the state had to provide one .
In this landmark decision, the Supreme Court heard several cases in which suspects signed confessions without being informed that they were not legally required to do so. The Court ruled that the Fifth Amendment guarantee against self-incrimination meant the accused must be warned of the right to remain silent and the right to have a lawyer present during questioning. Providing this information is now known as the Miranda warning.
phrases that inform accused people about their 5th amendment rights .
a lawyer provided by the government to represent poor clients
people accused of a crime must be informed of their rights
the 14th amendment ensures that the federal government can't limit citizens' basic rights without a good reason (such as public safety)
the civil war to place in 1861 – 1865
The states that remained part of the United States and fought the Confederacy during the Civil War.
nearly 4 million
it separated the races in public life. African Americans could not travel, do business, study, or worship with white Americans. When such laws were challenged in court, the states argued that segregation affected everyone equally
Actions or behaviors people take to engage with their community, including both obligations and responsibilities.
A system of government in which the people rule, usually by voting.
An action or behavior required by law of all U.S. citizens.
Every citizen must pay taxes.Every citizen must obey the laws.Every citizen must agree to serve on a jury if selected.Every (male) citizen must register for the military's selective service
traffic lights . ---> highways , roads , and street repair . ---> public parks , libraries , and schools . ---> police officers , firefighters, judges , and public attorneys . ---> medicaid , financial aid for education , low income housing , and homeless shelters. --->
any citizen of the united states can be summoned for jury duty at any time . as long as they are :. at least 18 years old . has never been convicted of a felony . not currently on active duty in the military . is not already on another jury. is able to read and write in English
The right to vote.
The Thirteenth Amendment abolished slavery in 1865, but more work was needed to ensure that African American citizens had equal rights. The passage of the Fifteenth Amendment gave African American men the right to vote, although the law was not upheld in all states.
The women's suffrage movement brought nationwide attention to the unequal treatment of women. Several states had granted women the right to vote by the mid-1800s, but it wasn't until 1920 that all U.S. women were recognized as full citizens.
After the Civil War, some southern states created poll taxes — or fees charged in order to vote — as a way to bypass the Fifteenth Amendment. Since many African American citizens could not afford to pay the tax, they were unable to vote. The Twenty-Fourth Amendment outlawed poll taxes in federal elections.
Because men could be drafted into the military when they were 18, it was deemed unfair that the legal voting age was 21. The Twenty-Sixth Amendment lowered the voting age to 18 so that those eligible for the draft would still have a voice in the nation's decisions.
Even though former slaves were free citizens after the Civil War, the majority of them had very little money. Many southern states passed laws that required voters to pay poll taxes, or fees in order to register to vote. These laws effectively prevented poor African American voters from exercising their constitutional rights.
Some southern states also passed laws that required literacy tests in order to vote. Since former slaves were not given proper educations before the Civil War and many of them were unable to read, this law was another attempt to prevent African Americans from voting. The literacy tests and poll taxes were often used together.
The poll taxes prevented former slaves from voting, but they also denied poor whites the right to vote. To avoid this, some southern states passed grandfather clauses, which stated that if a person's grandfather had full citizenship rights prior to the Civil War, he was exempt from poll taxes and literacy tests. This ensured that African American citizens would still be denied the right to vote, while poor white citizens would be spared.
poll taxes , grand father clauses , and the literacy tests
Mass movements in the United States that tried to establish equal rights for members of minority groups and women. The earliest, the African American civil rights movement, began in the 1950s.
The amendment to the Constitution that forbids the levying of a poll tax in primary and general elections for national officials.
A law passed during Lyndon B. Johnson's administration that gave the federal government the power to get involved in state and local elections to prevent racial discrimination in voting.
The rights guaranteed to the citizens of a country by their government. Civil rights often focus on creating equal conditions for all.
MAY 17 , 1954 --> Brown vs Board of Education 1955 - 1956 --> Montgomery bus boycottAugust 28 ,1963 --> March on WashingtonJULY 1 , 1964 --> The Civil Rights Act of 1964 EARLY 1965 --> Selma to Montgomery marches MARCH 15 ,1965 --> The Voting Rights Act of 1965
the voting act of 1965 After civil rights protesters were met with violence in the Selma to Montgomery marches, President Johnson calls for an act that would change voting rights in the United States. This leads to the drafting of the Voting Rights Act of 1965.
Selma to Montgomery marches Martin Luther King Jr. and other civil rights leaders stage protests against African American voter discrimination. The protests are met with violence from law enforcement and gain national attention.
the civil rights act of 1964 President Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act, which outlaws most state attempts to segregate African American citizens. However, the act is not effective against voting discrimination.
March on Washington Nonviolent protestors across the nation stage demonstrations urging the federal government to take a stand on civil rights. One of the most influential demonstrations is held in 1963 in Washington, D.C., where about 250,000 people gather to press for civil rights.
Montgomery bus boycott Civil rights activist Rosa Parks refuses to give up her seat on a bus to a white citizen and is arrested. Her actions spark a boycott that lasts almost 13 months and gains national attention.
Brown vs Board of Education in response to public protest, the Supreme Court rules that it is unconstitutional to force African American and white students to attend different schools.
The actions a government takes regarding issues within the country.
A government's interactions with other countries and foreign groups.
Economic policy concerns the way the government collects and spends money and regulates the market. Income tax rates are an example of economic policy.
Social policy relates to the way people live their lives. Issues related to family, health care, and education are in this area of policy. One example of a social policy program is Social Security, which provides benefits to the elderly and disabled.
Rules related to police, trials, and prisons are in the area of criminal justice policy. Some states use the death penalty in cases of murder, which is an example of criminal justice policy.
All of the practices that ensure that the rules of a democracy are followed and that the people have a voice.
A person who owes loyalty to and is protected by a country. Citizens of a country have certain rights and responsibilities.
all u.s citizens
anyone who lives in that state
anyone who lives within the area , city ,town ,ect
Statistics on how many people vote in an election.
Nonpresidential federal elections that occur every four years.
Disinterest in political issues; an unwillingness to participate in the political process.
online , by mail ,in person
An organization of citizens with similar views that seeks to have its members elected to government offices.
A political party that originated in the late 1700s and is still active today. Its membership and beliefs have changed many times. Throughout the 20th century, the Democratic Party shifted to support more liberal policies.
A political party started in the 1850s that is still active today. Although the Republican Party has generally pursued pro-business economic policies, its social policies have become more conservative over time.
Elections in which voters determine a political party's nominee for a general election.
Going door-to-door or calling people on the phone to let them know about an issue, cause, or political party.
door to door __ phone call __ mailing letters __ going to public events __ emails
even though political parties are active throughout the year , they tend to be especially busy during a election season . this could be a exciting time to volunteer for a political party . task could include printing posters and campaign materials canvassing local events coordinating fund - raisers calling undecided voters
printing posters and campaign materials canvassing local events coordinating fund - raisers calling undecided voters