people bought and sold goods rather than making them for themselves
an economic system based on open competition in a free market, in which individuals and companies own the means of production and operate for profit
individuals who start new businesses, introduce new products, and improve management techniques (risked investing their own money in new industries
invented the telegraph
machine invented by Samuel Morse in 1837 that used a system of dots and dashes to send messages across long distances electronically through a wire
blacksmith who invented the steel plow which enabled farmers to replace their oxen with horses
invented the mechanical reaper
the belief that the United States was destined to stretch across the continent from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean and into Mexican Territory
an important trade route going between Independence, Missouri and Santa fe, New mexico used from about 1821 to 1880
a route from Independence, Missouri, to Oregon City, Oregon, used by pioneers traveling to the Oregon Territory
Group that migrated westward along the Oregon Trail who wanted to escape persecution
Founded the Mormon religion after reporting that he was visited by an angel and given golden plates in 1840. Smith establishment of the Mormon faith started a movement within America of values including no drinking, gambling, and an unorthodox view of marriage. His sacrifice for his religious beliefs is a symbol of what America was built on back in the colonial days.
United States religious leader of the Mormon Church after the assassination of Joseph Smith
polks supporters yelled this out to show that they wanted all oregon to the line of 54 40' north latitude.
what Mexico offered to agents who in turn attracted American settlers, who eagerly bought land for twelve and a half cents an acre in return for a pledge to obey Mexican laws and observe the official religion of Roman Catholicism
Mexican general who tried to crush the Texas revolt and who lost battles to Winfield Scott and Zachary Taylor in the Mexican War (1795-1876) He was also the president of Mexico before the war.
The 1836 rebellion in which Texas gained its independence from Mexico. It later joined the United States.
the mission in San Antonio where in 1836 Mexican forces under Santa Anna besieged and massacred American rebels who were fighting to make Texas independent of Mexico
United States politician and military leader who fought to gain independence for Texas from Mexico and to make it a part of the United States (1793-1863)
independent nation that was created after Texans defeated Mexico in the Texas Revolution
Texas became the 28th State of the Union and the Mexican government was furious, triggered the war
The 11th U.S. President, he led the country during the mexican war and sought to expand the United States
General that was a military leader in Mexican-American War and 12th president of the United States. Sent by president Polk to lead the American Army against Mexico at Rio Grande, but defeated.
American general in war with Mexico, he captured Santa Fe without fireing a shot
Nickname for California after it declared independance form Mexico in 1846.
United States general who was a hero of the War of 1812 and who defeated Santa Anna in the Mexican War (1786-1866)
Treaty that ended the Mexican War, granting the U.S. control of Texas, New Mexico, and California in exchange for $15 million
Strip of land in present-day Arizona and New Mexico that was acquired by the U.S. in 1853 for $10 million. (established current borders of the lower 48 states)
People who went to California looking for Gold (They left in 1849)
a movement of many people to a region in which gold has been discovered. Rush in California started in 1848. Around 34,000 people moved to San Francisco.