Chapter 9: Expanding Markets and Moving West

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Cards in this guide (30)
market revolution

people bought and sold goods rather than making them for themselves


an economic system based on open competition in a free market, in which individuals and companies own the means of production and operate for profit


individuals who start new businesses, introduce new products, and improve management techniques (risked investing their own money in new industries

Samuel F. B. Morse

invented the telegraph


machine invented by Samuel Morse in 1837 that used a system of dots and dashes to send messages across long distances electronically through a wire

John Deere

blacksmith who invented the steel plow which enabled farmers to replace their oxen with horses

Cyrus McCormick

invented the mechanical reaper

manifest destiny

the belief that the United States was destined to stretch across the continent from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean and into Mexican Territory

Santa Fe Trail

an important trade route going between Independence, Missouri and Santa fe, New mexico used from about 1821 to 1880

Oregon Trail

a route from Independence, Missouri, to Oregon City, Oregon, used by pioneers traveling to the Oregon Territory


Group that migrated westward along the Oregon Trail who wanted to escape persecution

Joseph Smith

Founded the Mormon religion after reporting that he was visited by an angel and given golden plates in 1840. Smith establishment of the Mormon faith started a movement within America of values including no drinking, gambling, and an unorthodox view of marriage. His sacrifice for his religious beliefs is a symbol of what America was built on back in the colonial days.

Brigham Young

United States religious leader of the Mormon Church after the assassination of Joseph Smith

"Fifty-Four Forty or Fight"

polks supporters yelled this out to show that they wanted all oregon to the line of 54 40' north latitude.

land grants

what Mexico offered to agents who in turn attracted American settlers, who eagerly bought land for twelve and a half cents an acre in return for a pledge to obey Mexican laws and observe the official religion of Roman Catholicism

Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna

Mexican general who tried to crush the Texas revolt and who lost battles to Winfield Scott and Zachary Taylor in the Mexican War (1795-1876) He was also the president of Mexico before the war.

Texas Revolution

The 1836 rebellion in which Texas gained its independence from Mexico. It later joined the United States.


the mission in San Antonio where in 1836 Mexican forces under Santa Anna besieged and massacred American rebels who were fighting to make Texas independent of Mexico

Sam Houston

United States politician and military leader who fought to gain independence for Texas from Mexico and to make it a part of the United States (1793-1863)

Republic of Texas

independent nation that was created after Texans defeated Mexico in the Texas Revolution

annex of Texas

Texas became the 28th State of the Union and the Mexican government was furious, triggered the war

James K. Polk

The 11th U.S. President, he led the country during the mexican war and sought to expand the United States

Zachary Taylor

General that was a military leader in Mexican-American War and 12th president of the United States. Sent by president Polk to lead the American Army against Mexico at Rio Grande, but defeated.

Stephen Kearny

American general in war with Mexico, he captured Santa Fe without fireing a shot

Bear Flag Republic

Nickname for California after it declared independance form Mexico in 1846.

Winfield Scott

United States general who was a hero of the War of 1812 and who defeated Santa Anna in the Mexican War (1786-1866)

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

Treaty that ended the Mexican War, granting the U.S. control of Texas, New Mexico, and California in exchange for $15 million

Gadsden Purchase

Strip of land in present-day Arizona and New Mexico that was acquired by the U.S. in 1853 for $10 million. (established current borders of the lower 48 states)


People who went to California looking for Gold (They left in 1849)

gold rush

a movement of many people to a region in which gold has been discovered. Rush in California started in 1848. Around 34,000 people moved to San Francisco.

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