11th grade US History Chapter 16 - World War Looms

Start studying 11th grade US History Chapter 16 - World War Looms flashcards. Learn terms, definitions, and more with flashcards. Use the interactive study modes to quiz yourself.

User Avatar

Curtis Strite

Lvl 13
1y ago
No Reviews
Leave the first rating

Rate this Study Guide:

Cards in this guide (92)
Reasons Germans resented the Treaty of Versailles

It blamed them completely for starting the war, it took away their colonies and border territories, it banned them from maintaining a strong army

Weimar Republic

The democratic government set up in Germany after WWI that proved to be unable to contend with Germany's growing problems

What happens to many new democracies set up by the WWI peace settlement

They collapsed and totalitarian dictators were able to take power

Soviet Union

Communist state established in Russia in 1922 led first by Lenin and later by Stalin

"Five-year plans"

Stalin's plans to make Russia into an industrial leader through complete government control of all economic activity


a political system in which the government exer4cises complete control over its citizens' lives`

Benito Mussolini

Totalitarian leader of Italy who played on Italy's weak economy, unstable government, and fear of communism to create a fascist state


Political ideology that stresses nationalism and placed the interests of the state over those of individuals; includes power centralized with a single strong leader and a small group of party members

Black Shirts

Name for Mussolini's followers (from the uniforms they wore)

National Socialist German Workers' Party

The formal name for the Nazi Party of Germany; despite this name the Nazis did not have ties to socialism

Der Fuhrer

The Leader; nickname for Hitler

Mein Kampf

My Struggle; Hitler's book outlining the basic beliefs of the Nazi Party


The German brand of facism based on extreme nationalism

Goals of Nazism

Unite all German-speaking people under a great German empire; enforce racial "purification"; national expansion (lebensraum)


"Living space"; One thing Nazis wanted to obtain


Race Hitler considered "superior"; characterized by blond hair, blue eyes, etc.


Extreme pride in and devotion to one's country, often even over one's individual interests


Prime Minister of Germany, position Hitler was appointed to in 1933 when his Nazi party was the most powerful in Germany

Third Reich

"Third German Empire"; what Hitler replaced the Weimar Republic with once he was appointed chancellor


Group that seized power in Japan from the imperial government


Chinese province seized by Japanese militarists in 1931 without the consent of the offical Japanese government

What was one thing the Japanese had in common with Hitler's Nazi party

Both wanted more living space and resources.

What was the League of Nations' response to the Japanese invasion of Manchuria

They condemned Japan who simply quit the League in response; they took no direct military intervention

What happened to the League of Nations after Japan withdrew

Other nations began to test its power and Germany also withrdrew


German region on the French and Belgian border that hitler reoccupied despite it being demilitarized by the Treaty of Versailles.


One of Africa's few independent nations at the beginning of WWII that was siezed by Mussolini's Italy

Francisco Franco

Spanish army General who led a group of officers to rebel against the Spanish republic

Rome-Berlin Axis

Formal alliance between Mussolini and Hitler initiated by their mutual support of Francisco Franco in the Spanish Civil War

Abraham Lincoln Batalion

Group of 3,000 Americans who traveled to Spain to fight Franco's fascism

What position did the Western Democracies take during the Spanish Civil War

They remained neutral despite Germany and Italy offering official military support.

Kellogg-Briand Pact

Treaty signed by 62 countries that denounced war, but had no provisions for how to deal with nations that broke the pact


Political philosophy that Americans tried to stick to as WWII approached

Nye Committee

Investigated the claim that America had been dragged into WWI by greedy bankers and arms dealers who wanted to profit

Neutrality Acts

Series of acts passed by Congres beginning in 1935 that were aimed at keeping the US out of war; included outlawing sales of arms to nations at war or nations engaged in civil wars

How did FDR get around the Neutrality Acts with respect to Japan

He argued that Japan hadn't officially declared war on China, so he could send arms and supplies to China

Why did Hitler want Austria to join his Third Reich

Austria had only been created as a nation by the Paris Peace Conference following WWI and the majority of the small nation's population were German.


"Union"; In order to take over Austria, Hitler simply announced a union with the country since most of its population favored unification anyway


Western border region of Czechoslovakia where about 3 million German-speaking people lived; a second target of Hitler's lebensraum

How did Hitler obtain the Sudetenland

He made claims that the Czechs were abusing Sudeten Germans and built up troops on the border to prepare for invasion. In order to prevent an actual war and the complete fall of Czechoslovakia, the French and British agreed to give Hitler this region.

Neville Chamberlain

British minister who, along with French primier Edouard Daladier, practiced a policy of appeasement toward Hitler

Munich Agreement

Gave Hitler his supposed "last territorial demand" (the Sudetenland) to avoid war

Winston Churchill

Political rival of Chamberlain who regularly spoke out against the policy of appeasement toward Hitler


Giving up principles to pacify an aggressor

After taking Czechoslovakia, what nation did Hitler want to invade next


What initally prevented Hitler from invading Poland

A fear that invasion would provoke the Soviet Union.

Nonaggression Pact

An agreement not to go to war; In particular, one signed between Hitler and Stalin that allowed Hitler to invade Poland without fear of reprisal from the Soviet Union if he agreed (in a second secret pact) to divide Poland between them.


"Lightning war"; Germany's newest military strategy including intial strikes by luftwaffe followed by invasion of fast tanks and infantry in order to quickly destroy another nation.


German air force

What was the Soviet Union's response to the German invasion of Poland

They attacked Poland from the east to ensure that they received their fair share of territory

Maginot Line

A strongly defended area on the eastern border of France where British and French concentrated their troops in the early days of WWII, anticipating a German attack

Sigfried Line

A few miles away from the Maginot Line, location where Germans concentrated their troops along their western border awaiting French and British action


"Sitting war"; mocking name for the fact that after France and Britain declared war on Germany, nothing happened for weeks

Countries invaded by Hitler during April and May of 1940

Denmark, Norway, Netherlands, Belgium, & Luxembourg

Countries annexed by the Soviet Union in late 1939

Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and also invaded Finland


A heavily wooded region of Northeast France that Hitler invaded through in order to bypass the Maginot Line (was believed to be impassable)


Location where the Germans trapped almost 400,000 British and French soldiers on the French side of the English Channel (to which the British began ferrying people across the Channel to safety), to prevent them from protecting Paris

What was Italy's role in the fall of France

Italy invaded Paris from the South as Germany invaded from the North

Vichy France

A Nazi-controlled puppet state in Souther France established by Hitler and headed by Marshal Philippe Petain

Charles de Gaulle

French general who fled to England after the fall of Paris and set up a government-in-exile

Battle of Britain

Knowing they could not compete with Britain's powerful navy, the Germans tried to invade Britain by launching a massive air campaign that kept Britain under siege every night for two months and continued through the summer and fall


Technology that helped Britain's Royal Air Force combat the German luftwaffe starting in the Battle of Britain

Which nation did Hitler's blitzkreig not succesfully invade



Hitler's elite "security squadron" (SS)


The Nazis' systematic murder of 11 million people across Europe, more than half of whom were Jews


Hatred of the Jews which had been prevelant in Europe since long before the Holocaust

Nuremberg Laws

Stripped Jews of their German citizenship, jobs, and property


"Night of Broken Glass"; November 9-10, 1938; Day Nazi storm troopers attacked Jewish businesses, homes, and synagogues across Germany killing and injuring hundreds of Jews and arresting around 30,000

Jewish Refugees

Nazis tried to speed up Jewish emigration, but other nations were hesitant to accept these people

Albert Einstein

Jewish physicist who was among the 100,000 Jewish refugees accepted by the US; the US primarily accepted refugees of exceptional ability like him

The St. Louis

A German ocean liner filled with Jewish refugees, 740 (of 943) of whom had US immigration papers who were turned away from America and ultimately forced to return to Europe; more than half of its passengers were later killed in the Holocaust


The deliberate and systematic killing of an entire population

Other groups targeted by the Holocaust

Gypsies, freemasons, Jehovah's Witnesses, homoxexuals, the mentally deficient, the mentally ill, the physically disabled, and teh incurably ill

How did Hitler's "final solution" begin

The Nazi SS rounded up Jews in Poland and executed them on the spot

Concentration camps

Labor camps the Nazis forced Jews into; had been originally set up to imprison political opponents, but were turned over the the SS to house people like the Jews; in these camps people were staved, worked to death, and suffered from countless diseases

The Final State of Hitler's Final Solution

This began in early 1942 and included mass exterminations of Jews


Location of a meeting in 1942 of Nazi leaders where the decision to begin using death camps was made


A provision FDR persuaded Congress to pass to get around the Neutrality Acts that would allow warring nations to buy US arms as long as they paid cash adn transported them in their own ships; seemed like too little, too late and FDR would later begin providing "all aid short of war"

Axis Powers

Germany, Italy and Japan

Tripartite Pact

Mutual defense treaty that joined the Axis Powers; Meant that if the US engaged in war with Germany, they would be fighting a two-ocean war with Japan as well

US preparations for war

Despite being officially neutral, after 1940 the US begain to increase its spending on defense and passed the first peacetime military draft

How did FDR break tradition

He decided to run for a third term and won nearly 55% of the popular vote

The Great Arsenal of Democracy

What the US tried to be in WWII by being the supplier of the Allies without actually declaring war

Lend-Lease Act

March 1941; FDR's plan to lend or lease arms to the Allies, even if they couldn't immediately pay for them; FDR compared to lending a garden hose to a neighbor whose house was on fire to avoid it spreading to your home

The enemy of my enemy is my friend

The reason the US was willing to supply the Soviet Union after Hitler broke their non-aggression pact

German wolf-packs

Use of groups of up to 40 submarines to patrol areas of the Atlantic and attack convoys at night to prevent US supply ships from reaching Europe; US warships had permission to attack these wolf-packs

The Atlantic Charter

The result of a secret meeting between FDR and Churchill where both countries pledged collective security, disarmament, self-determination, economic cooperation, adn freedom of the sees; became the basis for Declaration of the United Nations


Those nations that fought the Axis Powers (included Britain, The Soviet Union, and eventually the United States)

"Shoot on sight"

Before an actual declaration of war by the Americans, the Senate repealed a ban against arming merchant ships so they could combat German u-boats that were sinking many ships

Hideki Tojo

Chief of staff of the Japanese Kwantung Army and later prime minister who was responsible for the Manchurian invasion and spearheaded the Japanese push to expand throughout the Pacific during WWI

Japanese expansion

Took European colonies like French Indochina and began to move through the Pacific; The US responded by embargoing oil trade, an essential resource


Japanese Emperor

Pearl Harbor

The largest US naval base in the Pacific; attacked by Japan on December 7, 1941 which pushed the US to declare war on Japan and enter WWII

Related study guides

World War 2

11 cards

What was the result of the attack on Pearl Harbor

How did the onset of the great depression impact urban unemployment

Why did some nations embrace totalitarianism after world war 1

The gain in the power of the executive branch during the new deal led some commentators to speak of the rise of the

See all cards
No Reviews

What was Remarque's purpose in writing all quiet on the western front and who was he writing for

What was the name of the Pact between Germany Italy and Japan making Japan part of the Axis

What statement best summarizes how the US mobilized its wartime economy

Which of the following World War 2 figures aligned with Benito Mussolini to send troops to support Francisco Franco in the Spanish Civil War

See all cards
No Reviews

World War 2

11 cards

What was the result of the attack on Pearl Harbor

How did the onset of the great depression impact urban unemployment

Why did some nations embrace totalitarianism after world war 1

The gain in the power of the executive branch during the new deal led some commentators to speak of the rise of the

See all cards
No Reviews

World War 2

11 cards

How did Benito Mussolini Adolf Hitler Hirohito contribute to the rise of fascism in Europe and Japan

How was the creation of the national assembly and the storming of the Bastille

Why was the Battle of Britain historically significant

Which of the following World War 2 figures aligned with Benito Mussolini to send troops to support Francisco Franco in the Spanish Civil War

See all cards
No Reviews

World War 2

16 cards

What did the Germans wear in concentration camps

What statement best summarizes how the US mobilized its wartime economy

Why was the Battle of Britain historically significant

What accounts for the variation between the postwar situation in Italy and that in Hungary in the late 1940s

See all cards
1 Review