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Complete US History

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Cards in this guide (296)
Missouri Compromise

Congress orchestrated a two-part compromise, granting Missouri's request but also admitting Maine as a free state. It also passed an amendment that drew an imaginary line across the former Louisiana Territory, establishing a boundary between free and slave regions that remained the law of the land until it was negated by the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854.

Fugitive Slave Act

A law passed as part of the Compromise of 1850, which provided southern slaveholders with legal weapons to capture slaves who had escaped to the free states. The law was highly unpopular in the North and helped to convert many previously indifferent northerners to antislavery.

Kansas-Nebraska Act

The Act of Congress in 1854 annulling the Missouri Compromise, providing for the organization of the territories of Kansas and Nebraska, and permitting these territories self-determination on the question of slavery.

Dred Scott Decision

(1857) *5th Amendment Property Rights

Abraham Lincoln

Republicans chose him to run against Senator Douglas (a Democrat) in the senatorial elections of 1858. Although he loss victory to senatorship that year, he came to be one of the most prominent northern politicians and emerged as a Republican nominee for president. Although he won the presidential elections of 1860, he was a minority and sectional president (he was not allowed on the ballot in ten southern states). 16th President of the United States; saved the Union during the American Civil War and emancipated the slaves; was assassinated by Booth.

Jefferson Davis

Former US senator who in 1861, was chosen president of the Confederate States of America; had wide military and administrative experience

Emancipation Proclamation

Lincoln's statement affirming the abolition of slavery as a war aim (1862) following the battle of Antietam. 4 million slaves were automatically freed.

Gettysburg

a battle of the American Civil War (1863); the defeat of Robert E. Lee's invading Confederate Army was a major victory for the Union.

Vicksburg

a decisive battle in the American Civil War (1863); after being besieged for nearly seven weeks the Confederates surrendered

Appomattox

Site Confederate general Robert E. Lee surrendered to Union general Ulysses S. Grant on April 9, 1865, effectively ending the Civil War..

Reconstruction

The plan to rebuild the South after the Civil War and extend the ideas of liberty and equality to the slaves that had been freed during the war. There are three brands: Presidential (Lincoln and Johnson), Radical (Radical Republicans), and Johnsonian (Johnson).

13th Amendment

This abolished slavery in the United States and provides that "Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States

Freedman's Bureau

Established by Congress to help former slaves adjust to freedom. It was Created to aid newly emancipated slaves by providing food, clothing, medical care, education, and legal support. Its achievements were uneven and depended largely on the quality of local administrators.

Black Codes

Prevented African Americans the right to vote, serve on juries, testify in court against whites, hold office, or serve in the military and regulated their marriages and labor contracts

Civil Rights Act

This granted citizenship and the same rights enjoyed by white citizens to all male persons in the United States "without distinction of race or color, or previous condition of slavery or involuntary servitude."

14th Amendment

This amendment declared that all persons born or naturalized in the United States were entitled equal rights regardless of their race, and that their rights were protected at both the state and national levels.

Due Process

According this no citizen may be denied his or her legal rights and all laws must conform to fundamental, accepted legal principles, as the right of the accused to confront his or her accusers.

15th Amendment

The amendment that stated that no one could be rejected voting rights based on race, color, or ex-slave.

Carpetbagger

Northerner who moved to the South after the American Civil War, especially during Reconstruction, in order to profit from the instability and power vacuum that existed at this time.

Scalawag

They were Southern whites who supported Reconstruction and the Republican Party, after the American Civil War.

Sharecropping

Is a system of agriculture in which a landowner allows a tenant (freed slave) to use the land in return for a share of the crops produced on the land.

Literacy Tests

This refers to state government practices of administering tests to prospective voters purportedly to test their literacy in order to vote. In practice, these tests were intended to disenfranchise African-Americans.

Poll Taxes

This was enacted in Southern states had the effect of disenfranchising many blacks as well as poor whites, because payment of the tax was a prerequisite for voting.

Jim Crow Laws

These were racial segregation state and local laws enacted after the Reconstruction period in Southern United States that continued in force until 1965 mandating de jure racial segregation in all public facilities in Southern U.S. states, starting in 1890 with a "separate but equal" status for African Americans.

Plessy v Ferguson

(1896) * "Seperate but equal" An 1896 Supreme Court case that upheld the constitutionality of segregation laws, saying that as long as blacks were provided with "separate but equal" facilities, these laws did not violate the Fourteenth Amendment. This decision provided legal justification for the Jim Crow system until the 1950s.

Transcontinental Railroad

A train route across the United States. It was the project of two railroad companies: the Union Pacific built from the east, and the Central Pacific built from the west. The two lines met in Utah. The Central Pacific laborers were predominantly Chinese, and the Union Pacific laborers predominantly Irish. Both groups often worked under harsh conditions.

Indian Wars

Were the multiple conflicts between American settlers or the United States government and the native peoples of North America from the time of earliest colonial settlement until 1890.

Buffalo Soldiers

A member of one of the African-American regiments within the US Army after the Civil War, serving primarily in the Indian wars of the late 1860s.

Little Big Horn

A particularly violent example of the warfare between whites and Native Americans in the late nineteenth century, also know as "Custer's Last Stand." In two days, June 25 and 26, 1876, the combined forces of over 2,000 Sioux, Cheyenne, and Arapaho Indians defeated and killed more than 250 U.S. soldiers, including Colonel George Custer. The battle came as the U.S. government tried to compel Native Americans to remain on the reservations and Native Americans tried to defend territory from white gold-seekers. This Indian advantage did not last long, however, as the union of these Indian fighters proved tenuous and the United States Army soon exacted retribution.

Wounded Knee

A battle between the U.S. Army and the Dakota Sioux, when tensions erupted violently over two major issues: the Sioux practice of the "Ghost Dance," which the U.S. government had outlawed

Homestead Act

A federal law that gave settlers 160 acres of land for about $30 if they lived on it for five years and improved it by, for instance, building a house on it. The act helped make land accessible to hundreds of thousands of westward-moving settlers, but many people also found disappointment when their land was infertile or they saw speculators grabbing up the best land. This originally consisted of grants totaling 160 acres of unappropriated federal land within the boundaries of the public land states.

Barbed Wire

A wire or strand of wires having small pieces of sharply pointed wire twisted around it at short intervals, used chiefly for fencing in livestock, keeping out trespassers, etc. in the Open Range

Sod House

a house built of strips of soil, laid like brickwork, and used especially by settlers on the Great Plains, when timber was scarce.

Capitalism

An economic and political system in which a country's trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit, rather than by the state

Bessemer Process

A steel-making process, now largely superseded, in which carbon, silicon, and other impurities are removed from molten pig iron by oxidation in a blast of air in a special tilting retort

Samuel Morse

an American inventor. After having established his reputation as a portrait painter, in his middle age this man contributed to the invention of a single-wire telegraph system and code.

Telegraph

A system for transmitting messages from a distance along a wire, especially one creating signals by making and breaking an electrical connection.

Alexander Graham Bell

Was an eminent Scottish-born scientist, inventor, engineer and innovator who is credited with inventing the first practical telephone.

Wilbur and Orville Wright

Were two American brothers, inventors, and aviation pioneers who are credited with inventing and building the world's first successful airplane and making the first controlled, powered and sustained heavier-than-air human flight

Madame C.J. Walker

American entrepreneur who developed hair products especially for black women and built the most successful company owned by an African American at that time.

Sarah Goode

First African American woman to receive a patent, designed furniture and received a patent for a fold-away bed

Andrew Carnegie

Was a Scottish American industrialist who led the enormous expansion of the American steel industry in the late 19th century. He built a leadership role as a philanthropist. He gave away to charities and foundations about $350 million.

John D. Rockefeller

Was an American industrialist and philanthropist. He was the founder of the Standard Oil Company, which dominated the oil industry and was the first great U.S. business trust. He revolutionized the petroleum industry and defined the structure of modern philanthropy.

J.P. Morgan

Was an American financier, banker, and philanthropist who dominated corporate finance and industrial consolidation during his time. In 1892, he arranged the merger of Edison General Electric and Thomson-Houston Electric Company to form General Electric. After financing the creation of the Federal Steel Company, he merged in 1901 with the Carnegie Steel Company and several other steel and iron businesses, including Consolidated Steel and Wire Company, to form the United States Steel Corporation

Vertical Integration

Is an arrangement in which the supply chain of a company is owned by that company. Usually each member of the supply chain produces a different product or (market-specific) service, and the products combine to satisfy a common need.

Horizontal Integration

Is a strategy where a company creates or acquires production units for outputs which are alike - either complementary or competitive. One example would be when a company acquires competitors in the same industry doing the same stage of production for the creation of a monopoly.

Trusts

An economic method that had other companies assigns their stocks to the board of trust who would manage them. This made the head of the board, or the corporate leader wealthy, and at the same time killed off competitors not in the trust. This method was used/developed by Rockefeller, and helped him become extremely wealthy. It was also used in creating monopolies.

Monopoly

Is being the only one in a given selling a specific product, or having exclusive control over a certain thing, or the trade mark of a board game where the aim is to buy properties on the board and then build hotels on those properties.

Labor Union

An organization of workers formed for the purpose of advancing its members' interests in respect to wages, benefits, and working conditions.

Knights of Labor

This Union that grew rapidly because of a combination of their open-membership policy, the continuing industrialization of the American economy, and the growth of urban population; welcomed unskilled and semiskilled workers, including women, immigratns, and African Americans;

American Federation of Labor

Was the first federation of labor unions in the United States. It was founded in Columbus, Ohio, by an alliance of craft unions disaffected from the Knights of Labor, a national labor association and led by Samuel Gompers; an alliance of skilled workers in craft unions; concentrated on bread-and-butter issues such as higher wages, shorter hours, and better working conditions.

Samuel Gompers

Head of the American Federation of Labor (AFL). For 38 years, he worked for the AFL, making it a major force in the industrial world. He believed that if workers make good pay, it will make everyone prosperous. He believes in fair wages for all.

Haymarket Riot

The riot took place in Chicago between rioters and the police. It ended when someone threw a bomb that killed dozens. The riot was suppressed, and in addition with the damaged reputation of unions, it also killed the Knights of Labor, who were seen as anarchists.

Homestead Strike

1892, A strike at a Carnegie steel plant in Homestead, P.A., that ended in an armed battle between the strikers, three hundred armed "Pinkerton" detectives hired by Carnegie, and federal troops, which killed ten people and wounded more than sixty. The strike was part of a nationwide wave of labor unrest in the summer of 1892 that helped the Populists gain some support from industrial workers.

Pullman Strike

1894,began when the national economy fell into a depression, the Pullman Palace Car Company cut wages while maintaining rents and prices in a company town where 12,000 workers lived; halted a substantial portion of American railroad commerce; ended when President Cleveland ordered federal troops to Chicago, ostensibly to protect rail-carried mail, but in reality, to crush the strike.

Social Darwinism

This was a belief held by many that stated that the rich were rich and the poor were poor due to natural selection in society. This was the basis of many people who promoted a laissez fairee style of economy.

Urbanization

The process of people moving to cities.

Tenement

Originally referred simply to a multiple-family rental building; in late 1800s, used to describe slum dwellings only. Had many windowless rooms, little or no plumbing or central heating, & perhaps a row of privies in the basement

Political Machine

A political organization in which an authoritative boss or small group commands the support of a corps of supporters and businesses, who receive rewards for their efforts.

Tammany Hall

Was powerful New York political organization. It drew support from immigrants. The immigrants relied on Tammany Hall patronage, particularly for social services. This is significant in that it gave immigrants rights to vote.

Boss Tweed

An American politician most notable for being the "boss" of Tammany Hall, ran the New York City Democratic party in the 1860s and swindled $200 million from the city through bribery, graft, and vote-buying. He was eventually jailed for his crimes and died behind bars.

Old Immigrants

Immigrants who had come from North Western areas of Europe. Germans and Scandinavians from Western Europe who came before the 1880's. They discriminated against the "new immigration" and considered themselves "natives." The mixing of the other Europeans would tarnish their true Anglo-Saxon heritage

New Immigrants

Immigrants from southern and eastern Europe who formed a recognizable wave of immigration from the 1880s until 1924, in contrast to the wave of immigrants from western Europe who had come before them. These new immigrants congregated in ethnic urban neighborhoods, where they worried many native-born Americans, some of whom responded with nativist anti-immigrant campaigns and others of whom introduced urban reforms to help immigrants assimilate.

Ellis Island

The gateway for millions of immigrants to the U.S. as the nation's busiest immigration inspection station from 1892 until 1954.

Americanization

The influence of the U.S. on the culture of other countries. Also refers to the process of acculturation by immigrants or annexed populations to American customs and values.

Chinese Exclusion Act

1882, Federal legislation that prohibited most further Chinese immigration to the United States. This was the first major legal restriction on immigration in U.S. history.

Nativism

The policy of protecting of the interest of native born or established inhabitants against those of immigrants.

William Jennings Bryan

A dominant force in the populist wing of the Democratic Party, standing three times as the Party's candidate for President of the U.S. He served two terms as a member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Nebraska and was U.S. Secretary of State under Woodrow Wilson.

"Cross of Gold" Speech

Speech delivered by William Jennings Bryan, a former U.S. Representative from Nebraska, at the Democratic National Convention in Chicago on July 9, 1896. In the address, Bryan supported bimetallism or "free silver", which he believed would bring the nation prosperity.

Progressives

Favoring or advocating progress, change, improvement, or reform, as opposed to wishing to maintain things as they are, especially in political matters.

Social Gospel Movement

A reform movement led by Protestant ministers who used religious doctrine to demand better housing and living conditions for the urban poor.

Salvation Army

A Christian denominational church and an international charitable organization structured in a quasi-military fashion.

Temperance Movement

A social movement against the consumption of alcoholic beverages.

Muckrakers

Bright young reporters at the turn of the 20th century who won this unfavorable moniker from Theodore Roosevelt, but boosted the circulations of their magazines by writing exposรฉs of widespread corruption in American society.

Ida Tarbell

An American teacher, author, and journalist. One of the leading muckrakers. She is known for her pioneering investigative reporting that led to the breakup of the Standard Oil Company's monopoly.

Upton Sinclair

He was a writer of novels of social protest and political tracts; he is best known for his 1906 expose of the meatpacking industry, "The Jungle."

Jacob Riis

A Danish American social reformer, muckraking journalist and social documentary photographer. He is known for using his photographic and journalistic talents to help the poor by publishing his book "How the other half lives."

Settlement House

Mostly run by middle-class native-born women, they were found in immigrant neighborhoods provided housing, food, education, child care, cultural activities, and social connections for new arrivals to the US. Many women, both native-born and immigrant, developed life-long passions for social activism. Jane Addams's Hull House in Chicago was the most prominent.

Jane Addams

She a pioneer settlement social worker,public philosopher, sociologist, author, and leader in women's suffrage and world peace. She was one of the most prominent reformers of the Progressive Era. She helped turn the US to issues of concern to mothers, such as the needs of children, public health, and world peace.

National Woman Suffrage Association

founded in New York City, that was created by Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton. An organization founded in 1890 to demand the vote for women

Political Machines

a political organization in which an authoritative boss or small group commands the support of a corps of supporters and businesses (usually campaign workers), who receive rewards for their efforts.

17th Amendment

Established that senators were to be elected directly. This law was intended to create a more democratic, fair society.

Women's Suffrage

The right of women to vote and to stand for electoral office.

Susan B. Anthony

An American social reformer and feminist who played a pivotal role in the women's suffrage movement.

Alice Paul

An American suffragist, feminist, and women's rights activist, and the main leader and strategist of the 1910s campaign for the 19th Amendment.

Theodore Roosevelt

He unexpectedly became the 26th president of the United States in September 1901, after the assassination of William McKinley. Young and physically robust, he brought a new energy to the White House, and won a second term on his own merits in 1904. He confronted the bitter struggle between management and labor head-on and became known as the great "trust buster" for his strenuous efforts to break up industrial combinations under the Sherman Antitrust Act. He was also a dedicated conservationist, setting aside some 200 million acres for national forests, reserves and wildlife refuges during his presidency. In the foreign policy arena, and even won a Nobel Peace Prize for his negotiations to end the Russo-Japanese War and spearheaded the beginning of construction on the Panama Canal. He returned to politics in 1912, mounting a failed run for president at the head of a new Progressive Party.

Square Deal

It was Theodore Roosevelt's domestic program: conservation of natural resources, control of corporations, and consumer protection. These three demands are often referred to as the "three C's."

Meat Inspection Act

A law passed by Congress to subject meat shipped over state lines to federal inspection.

Pure Food and Drug Act

A law passed by Congress to inspect and regulate the labeling of all foods and pharmaceuticals intended for human consumption.

William Howard Taft

27th President of the United States, he was progressive in his polices, and later the tenth Chief Justice of the United States. He is the only person to have served in both of these offices.

16th Amendment

Allows the Congress to levy an income tax without apportioning it among the states or basing it on the U.S. Census.

Woodrow Wilson

28th U.S. president, served in office from 1913 to 1921 and led America through World War I. An advocate for democracy and world peace, He is often ranked by historians as one of the nation's greatest presidents. Once in office, he pursued an ambitious agenda of progressive reform that included the establishment of the Federal Reserve and Federal Trade Commission. He tried to keep the United States neutral during World War I but ultimately called on Congress to declare war on Germany in 1917. After the war, he helped negotiate a peace treaty that included a plan for the League of Nations. Although the Senate rejected U.S. membership in the League.

Spanish-American War

A war between Spain and the United States fought in 1898. The war began as an intervention by the United States on behalf of Cuba.

Yellow Journalism

Journalism that exploits, distorts, or exaggerates the news to create sensations and attract readers

William Randolph Hearst

Newspaper editor in New York City who grew competitive and employed yellow journalism in order to entice readers to buy their papers; both men stopped at nothing in order to get a good story, and so were able to deliver shocking stories and exciting anecdotes.

U.S.S Maine

The battleship sent to Havana to protect Americans and their property; an explosion sank it; killing 260 men. Newspapers said the ship was blown up by Spain and it became a Ralling call for war.

Rough Riders

The First United States Volunteer Calvary, a mixture of Ivy League athletes and western frontiersmen who volunteered to fight in the Spanish-American War. Recruited by Theodore Roosevelt, they won many battles in Florida and enlisted in the invasion army of Cuba.

Imperialism

A policy of extending a country's power and influence through diplomacy or military force for resources and financial gain.

"White Man's Burden"

A phrase used to justify European imperialism in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries; it is the title of a poem by Rudyard Kipling.

Anti-Imperialist League

Objected to the annexation of the Philippines and the building of an American empire. Idealism, self-interest, racism, constitutionalism, and other reasons motivated them, but they failed to make their case; the Philippines were annexed in 1900

Queen Liliuokalani

the last reigning monarch of the Kingdom of Hawaii. She took the throne in 1891 following the death of her brother, King Kalakaua. She was a strong voice for native Hawaiians, whose power had been limited by the increasing influence of U.S. settlers in Hawaii.

Spheres of Influence

A country or area in which another country has power to affect developments although it has no formal authority.

"Open Door" Policy

Is a term in foreign affairs initially used to refer to the United States policy established in the late 19th century and the early 20th century, as enunciated in Secretary of State John Hay's Open Door Note, dated September 6, 1899 Message delivered by John to the nations of the world, begging them to respect Chinese rights and influence in the spirit of fair competition.

Yellow Fever

A tropical viral disease affecting the liver and kidneys, causing fever and jaundice and often fatal. It is transmitted by mosquitoes. Caused problem in the construction of the Panama Canal.

Monroe Doctrine

A principle of US policy, originated by President James Monroe in 1823, that any intervention by external powers in the politics of the Americas is a potentially hostile act against the US.

Roosevelt Corollary

Roosevelt's 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force

"Big Stick" policy

Refers to U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt's foreign policy: "speak softly, and carry a big stick.

Nationalism

Is a belief or political ideology that involves an individual identifying with, or becoming attached to, one's nation.

Allied Powers

The victorious allied nations of World War I and World War II. In World War I, included Britain, France, Italy, Russia, and the United States. In World War II, included Britain, France, the Soviet Union, and the United States.

Central Powers

Germany and its allies (Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire) in World War I.

Chemical Warfare

The first full-scale deployment of deadly chemical warfare agents during World War I was at the Second Battle of Ypres, on April 22, 1915, when the Germans attacked French, Canadian and Algerian troops with chlorine gas. Deaths were light, though casualties relatively heavy.

Convoys

A group of ships traveling together, typically accompanied by armed troops and warships for protection.

Lusitania

A British passenger ship that was sunk by a German U-Boat on May 7, 1915. 128 Americans died. The sinking greatly turned American opinion against the Germans, helping the move towards entering the war. Also caused Germany to say they would stop submarine warfare.

Zimmerman telegraph

German foreign secretary Arthur Zimmerman had secretly proposed a German-Mexican alliance against the United States. When the note was intercepted and published in March 1917, it caused an uproar that made some Americans more willing to enter the war.

Unrestricted submarine warfare

Type of naval warfare in which submarines sink vessels such as freighters and tankers without warning, as opposed to attacks per prize rules (also known as "cruiser rules").

Mobilization

The act of assembling and making both troops and supplies ready for war.

Conscription

Compulsory enlistment or draft for state service, typically into the armed forces.

War Bonds

Debt securities issued by a government for the purpose of financing military operations during times of war. It is an emotional appeal to patriotic citizens to lend the government their money because these bonds offer a rate of return below the market rate.

Espionage Act

A law prohibiting interference with the draft and other acts of national "disloyalty." Together with the Sedition Act of 1918, which added penalties for abusing the government in writing, it created a climate that was unfriendly to civil liberties

Sedition Act

A series of laws, passed that prohibited anyone from making "disloyal" or "abusive" remarks about the US government.

Eugene Debs

Was an American union leader, one of the founding members of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW or the Wobblies), and several times the candidate of the Socialist Party of America for President of the United States. Through his presidential candidacies, as well as his work with labor movements, he eventually became one of the best-known socialists living in the United States.

Schenck v United States

(1919) *Congressional War Powers

Great Migration

Was the movement of 6 million African Americans out of the rural Southern United States to the urban Northeast, Midwest, and West that occurred between 1910 and 1970.

Fourteen points

Woodrow Wilson's proposal to ensure peace after World War I, calling for an end to secret treaties, widespread arms reduction, national self-determination, and a new league of nations.

Treaty of Versailles

World War I concluded with this vengeful document, which secured peace but imposed sharp terms on Germany and created a territorial mandate system to manage former colonies of the world powers. To Woodrow Wilson's chagrin, it incorporated very few of his original Fourteen Points, although it did include the League of Nations that Wilson had long sought. Isolationists in the United States, deeply opposed to the League, led the opposition to the Treaty, which was never ratified by the Senate.

Roaring Twenties

Was a time when many people defied Prohibition, indulged in new styles of dancing and dressing, and rejected many traditional moral standards.

Demobilization

Act of changing from a war basis to a peace basis including disbanding or discharging troops; "demobilization of factories";"immediate demobilization of the reserves"

Red scare

A fear of Russia that ran high in the US even after the Bolshevik revolution of 1917. This resulted in a nationwide crusade against those whose support Communism.

J. Edgar Hoover

Ambitious assistant of Palmer, he helped orchestrate a series of raids on alleged radical centers throughout the country and arrested 6,000 people. (500, non- Americans were deported)., put in charge to fight against radicals during the Red Scare after World War 1.

Sacco and Vanzetti

Were Italian immigrants charged with murdering a guard and robbing a shoe factory in Braintree; Mass. The trial lasted from 1920-1927. Convicted on circumstantial evidence; many believed they had been framed for the crime because of their anarchist and pro-union activities. Despite criticism from liberals and radicals all over the world, the men were electrocuted in 1927.

Normality

After World War I 1919-20s, when Harding was President, the US and Britain returned to isolatoinism. The US economy "boomed" but Europe continued to struggle. People longed for the old America, and were ready to accept a lower quality president who would not force them to be so involved.

League of Nations

International organization founded in 1919 to promote world peace and cooperation but greatly weakened by the refusal of the United States to join. It proved ineffectual in stopping aggression by Italy, Japan, and Germany in the 1930s.

Kellogg- Briand Pact

1928- Between France and US. Denounced war, called for a limitation of arms, and prohibited the use of war as an "instrument of national policy". It outlawed war as a tool of foreign policy.

Assembly line

Manufacturing allowed workers to remain in one place and master one repetitive action, maximizing output. It became the production method of choice by the 1930s.

Consumerism

Concentration on producing and distributing goods for a market which must constantly be enlarged

18th Amendment

Prohibited the non-medical sale of alcohol This amendment is the midpoint of a growing drive towards women's rights as well as showing the moral attitude of the era.

Prohibition

a total ban on the manufacture, sale, and transportation of liquor throughout the United States. 1919-1933.

19th Amendment

Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1920) extended the right to vote to women in federal or state elections.

Flappers

Carefree young women with short, "bobbed" hair, heavy makeup, and short skirts. They symbolized the new "liberated" woman of the 1920s. Many people saw the bold, boyish look and shocking behavior as a sign of changing morals. Though hardly typical of American women, their appearance reinforced the idea that women now had more freedom.

Booker T. Washington

A former slave. Encouraged blacks to keep to themselves and focus on the daily tasks of survival, rather than leading a grand uprising. Believed that building a strong economic base was more critical at that time than planning an uprising or fighting for equal rights. Washington also stated in his famous "Atlanta Compromise" speech in 1895 that blacks had to accept segregation in the short term as they focused on economic gain to achieve political equality in the future. Served as important role models for later leaders of the civil rights movement.

W.E.B Du Bois

One of Washington's harshest critics, believing that Washington's pacifist plan would only perpetuate the second-class-citizen mindset. He felt that immediate "ceaseless agitation" was the only way to truly attain equal rights. As editor of the black publication "The Crisis," he publicized his disdain for Washington and was instrumental in the creation of the "Niagara Movement," which later became the NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People). He eventually grew weary of the slow pace of racial equality in the United States and renounced his citizenship and moved to Ghana in 1961, where he died two years later. Served as important role models for later leaders of the civil rights movement.

Harlem Renaissance

a flowering of African American culture in the 1920s when New York City's Harlem became an intellectual and cultural capital for African Americans; instilled interest in African American culture and pride in being an African American.

Jazz Age

Name for the 1920s, because of the popularity of jazz-a new type of American music that combined African rhythms, blues, and ragtime

Ku Klux Klan

Reconstruction-era organization that was revived in 1915 and rose to political power in the mid-1920s when membership reached 4 to 5 million; opposed to blacks, Catholics, Jews, and immigrants, its membership was rural, white, native-born, and Protestant.

Seminole Indians

They lived in Florida. They waged a seven years war against the Americans to try and remain in the east instead of being forcibly removed to the west. They were tricked into a truce where their chief Osceola was captured. Most were moved to Oklahoma while others remained hidden in the everglades.

Economic Boom

Was a period in American History often referred to as the Roaring Twenties. This period of economic boom was marked by rapid industrial growth and advances in technology. The Economic Boom in the 1920's saw increases in productivity, sales and wages accompanied by a rising demand for consumer products leading to massive profits for businesses and corporations.

Bull Market

This term describes a situation in which the value of stocks is rising quickly. This occurred in 1929 when the New York Stock Exchange had reached an all-time high, with stocks selling for more than 16 times their actual worth. Unfortunately, at this time, it was not a true rising market and it eventually crashed.

Buying on margin

Buying on margin was the act of buying stock for just 10% of the price promising to later pay the rest of it. On top of that, investors often times borrowed money to pay this small percentage. This was a leading contributor to the Great Depression.

Speculation Boom

One who buys property, goods, or financial instruments not primarily for use but in anticipation of profitable resale after a general rise in value.

Black Tuesday

On October 29th, 1929, the stock market boom came to an end as millions of panicked investors frantically traded shares with one another. As a result, stock prices rapidly collapsed, leading to the Great Depression

Smoot-Hawley Tariff

Was enacted in 1930. This treaty raised tariffs on many imported goods. Many American trading partners retaliated in response to this tariff. It might have even worsened the Great Depression. It reduced international trade.

Herbert Hoover

He was a republican who believed in Laissez-Faire economics. Was elected to office in 1928. He aimed to eliminate poverty during his presidency, however, was unable to prevent the Great Depression. He did not think it was the government's job to interfere in the economy and he feared that the federal aid would weaken individual character.

"Hoovervilles"

Grim shantytowns where impoverished victims of the Great Depression slept under newspapers and in makeshift tents. Their visibility (and sarcastic name) tarnished the reputation of the Hoover administration.

Dust Bowl

Severe drought ruined crops in the Great Plains and created this term to describe the region during the 1930s because it was named after the dust that constantly flew around and smothered everything. As the horrid conditions continued coupled with poor farming practices, 350,000 farmers whose crops had been ruined migrated to California. These ex-farmers became known as Okies.

Franklin D. Roosevelt

The 32nd president of the United States. He was president from 1933 until his death in 1945 during both the Great Depression and World War II. He is the only president to have been elected 4 times, a feat no longer permissible due to the 22nd Amendment to the Constitution.

Fireside chats

Roosevelt utilized the radio to reach out to the nation as whole. By talking to the nation over the radio Roosevelt was establishing a more "personal" connection.

New Deal

The 1st was to a collection of programs created in the early 1930s that aimed to improve the economic situation in America. The 2nd was a set of new programs put into place from 1934 to 1936. These included additional banking reforms, new tax laws, and new relief programs.

Bank Holiday

All banks were to close while Congress met to discuss the bank situation. After four days, Congress passed the Emergency Banking Act which allowed banks to reopen only if the Treasury Department inspected and testified that the bank had sufficient tax reserves.

National Recovery Administration (NRA)

Known by its critics as the "National Run Around," this was an early New Deal program designed to assist industry, labor, and the unemployed through centralized planning mechanisms that monitored workers' earnings and working hours to distribute work and established codes for "fair competition" to ensure that similar procedures were followed by all firms in any particular industrial sector.

Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)

A New Deal program designed to raise agricultural prices by paying farmers not to farm. It was based on the assumption that higher prices would increase farmers' purchasing power and thereby help alleviate the Great Depression.

Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)

A government program created by Congress to hire young unemployed men to improve the rural, out-of-doors environment with such work as planting trees, fighting fires, draining swamps, and maintaining National Parks. It proved to be an important foundation for the post-World War II environmental movement.

Works Progress Administration (WPA)

May 6, 1935 It was established under Hoover and continued under Roosevelt. It built many public buildings and roads, and as well operated a large arts project.

Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)

The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation was established by Roosevelt in the Glass-Steagall Act. This Act insured deposits up to $2500 and reduced the number of bank closings in 1934.

Social security Act

This Act provided old-age pensions for most privately employed workers. This act did not include farm workers and domestic servants due to wide opposition from southern Democrats. The act was not funded by general taxes but by mandatory contributions paid by workers and their employers.

Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)

Built hydroelectric power plants and dams to increase electric power and decrease flood control. Was designed to help industrialize the South. Provided numerous jobs, soil conservation and reforestation. Many criticized as socialistic--government entered into private enterprise, provided electric power.

Wagner Act

Established National Labor Relations Board; protected the rights of most workers in the private sector to organize labor unions, to engage in collective bargaining, and to take part in strikes and other forms of concerted activity in support of their demands.

Court-Packing Plan

Franklin Roosevelt's politically motivated and ill-fated scheme to add a new justice to the Supreme Court for every member over seventy who would not retire. His objective was to overcome the Court's objections to New Deal reforms.

Fascism

A system of government characterized by strict social and economic control and a strong, centralized government usually headed by a dictator. First found in Italy by Mussolini.

Benito Mussolini

Fascist dictator of Italy (1922-1943). He led Italy to conquer Ethiopia, joined Germany in the Axis pact, and allied Italy with Germany in World War II. He was overthrown in 1943 when the Allies invaded Italy., right-wing movement, socialist, influenced by Nietzsche; after WWI broke out, he wanted Italy to participate with France. There was many problems going on in Italy, thus he promised improvement and got into power.

Appeasement

In a political context is a diplomatic policy of making political or material concessions to an enemy power in order to avoid conflict.

Blitzkrieg

A German term for "lightning war," This is a military tactic designed to create disorganization among enemy forces through the use of mobile forces and locally concentrated firepower. Its successful execution results in short military campaigns, which preserves human lives and limits the expenditure of artillery.

Neutrality Acts

Originally designed to avoid American involvement in World War II by preventing loans to those countries taking part in the conflict; they were later modified in 1939 to allow aid to Great Britain and other Allied nations. They were four laws passed in the late 1930s that were designed to keep the US out of international incidents.

Lend-Lease Act

Approve by Congress in March 1941; The act allowed America to sell, lend or lease arms or other supplies to nations considered "vital to the defense of the United States."

Pearl Harbor

(December 7, 1941) The US thought the Japanse would attack British Malaya or the Philipines. But instead they attacked here, at several naval bases wiping out many ships and killing 3000 men. The next day the US declares war on Japan. The Day after that the Germans and Italy declare war on the US .The attack led to the United States' entry into World War II

D-Day

Code named Operation Overlord, the battle began on June 6, 1944, also known as D-Day, when some 156,000 American, British and Canadian forces landed on five beaches along a 50-mile stretch of the heavily fortified coast of France's Normandy region. The invasion was one of the largest amphibious military assaults in history and required extensive planning.

Normandy

The invasion by and establishment of Western Allied forces on the French beaches during Operation Overlord in 1944; the largest amphibious invasion to ever take place.

Midway

U.S. naval victory over the Japanese fleet in June 1942, and marked a turning point in World War II.

Homefront

The civilian population and activities of a nation whose armed forces are engaged in war abroad.

Japanese-American Internment

Similar to the Red Scare in WWI, many Americans feared Japanese Americans were a threat to American safety. 110,000 Japanese-Americans were forced into these camps because the US feared that they might act as saboteurs for Japan in case of invasion. The camps deprived the Japanese-Americans of basic rights, and the internees lost hundreds of millions of dollars in property. In the Supreme Court ruling in Korematsu v. U.S. (1944), the Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of the concentration camps.

Korematsu v. U.S

(1941) *Executive Powers

A. Philip Randolph

Labor and Civil Rights leader in the 1940s who led the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters; he demanded that FDR create a Fair Employment Commission to investigate job discrimination in war industries. FDR agreed only after he threatened a march on Washington by African Americans.

The Congress of Racial Equality (CORE)

Is a U.S. Civil Rights Organization that played a pivotal role for African Americans in the Civil Rights Movement. Founded in 1942, it was one of the "Big Four" civil rights organizations, along with the SCLC, the SNCC, and the NAACP. Though still existent, it has been much less influential since the end of the 1955-68 civil rights movement.

Final Solution

This was Nazi Germany's plan during World War II to systematically exterminate the Jewish population in Nazi-occupied Europe through genocide. This policy was formulated in procedural terms at the Wannsee Conference in January 1942, and culminated in the Holocaust which saw the killing of two thirds of the Jewish population of Europe.

United Nations

International body formed to bring nations into dialogue in hopes of preventing further world wars; much like the former League of Nations in ambition, it was more realistic in recognizing the authority of the Big Five Powers in keeping peace in the world, thus guaranting veto power to all permant members of its Security Council (Britian, China, France, the Soviet Union, and the United States)

Mary McLeod Bethune

An American educator and civil rights leader best known for starting a school for African-American students in Daytona Beach, Florida, that eventually became Bethune-Cookman University and for being an advisor to President Franklin D. Roosevelt. She was known as "The First Lady of The Struggle" because of her commitment to bettering African Americans.

Joseph Stalin

Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition Bolshevik revolutionary, head of the Soviet Communists after 1924, and dictator of the Soviet Union from 1928 to 1953. He led the Soviet Union with an iron fist, using Five-Year Plans to increase industrial production and terror to crush opposition.

Yalta Conference

Meeting of FDR, Winston Churchill, and Joseph Stalin, in February 1945 at an old Tsarist resort on the Black Sea, where the Big Three leaders laid the foundations for the postwar division of power in Europe, including a divided Germany an territorial concessions to the Soviet Union.

Cold War

The 45 year diplomatic tension between the US and the Soviet Union that divided much of the world into polarized camps, capitalist against communist.

Iron Curtain

A term popularized by British Prime Minister Winston Churchill to describe the Soviet Union's policy of isolation during the Cold War. The barrier isolated Eastern Europe from the rest of the world.

Containment

America's strategy against the Soviet Union based on ideas of George Kennan, and declared that the Soviet Union and communism were inherently expansionist and had to be stopped from spreading through both military and political pressure.

Berlin Airlift

Year-long mission of flying food and supplies to blockaded West Berliners, whom the Soviet Union cut off from access to the West in the first major crisis of the Cold War.

Berlin Wall

Fortified and guarded barrier between East and West Berlin erected on orders from Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev in 1961 to stop the flow of people to the West. Until its destruction in 1989, the wall was a vivid symbol of the divide between the communist and capitalist worlds.

Cuban Missile Crisis

Standoff between John F. Kennedy and Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev in October 1962 over Soviet plans to install nuclear weapons in Cuba. Although the crisis was ultimately settled in America's favour and represented a foreign policy triumph for Kennedy, it brought the world's superpowers perilously close the brink of nuclear confrontation.

Fidel Castro

Cuban revolutionary who overthrew Batista dictatorship in 1958 and assumed control of the island country. His connections with the Soviet Union led to a cessation of diplomatic relations with the United States in such internationl affairs as the Bay of Pigs invasion and the Cuban Missile Crisis. Oversaw his country through the end of the Cold War and through nearly a half-century of trade embargo with the US.

John F. Kennedy

President of the United States who narrowly defeated the incumbent vice-president Nixon in 1960 to become the youngest person ever elected president. Launched New Frontier programs and urged legislation to improve civil rights; assumed the blame for the Bay of Pigs ivasion and was credited as well for the superb handling of the Cuban Missile Crisis. He was assasinated in Dallas, Texas, on November 22, 1963, by Lee Harvey Oswald

Korean War

First "hot war" or the Cold War. Began in 1950 when the Soviet-backed North Koreans invaded South Korea before meeting a counter-offensive by UN Forces, dominated by the US, and the war ended in stalemate in 1953.

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

Military alliance of Western European powers and the US and Canada established in 1949 to defend against the common threat from the Soviet Union, marking a giant stride forward for European unity and American internationalism.

Warsaw Pact

A military alliance of communist nations in eastern Europe. Organized in 1955 in answer to NATO, the pact included Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and the Soviet Union.

Bay of Pigs Invasion

CIA plot in 1961 to overthrow Fidel Castro by training Cuban exiles to invade and supporting them with American air power. The mission failed and became a public relations disaster early in John F. Kennedy's presidency.

Truman Doctrine

1947; a policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology

Harry S. Truman

The 33rd U.S. president, who succeeded Franklin D. Roosevelt upon Roosevelt's death in April 1945. This present led the country through the last few months of World War II, is best known for making the controversial decision to use two atomic bombs against Japan in August 1945. After the war, this President was crucial in the implementation of the Marshall Plan, which greatly accelerated Western Europe's economic recovery.

Potsdam Conference

From July 17 to August 2, 1945, President Harry S Truman met with Soviet leader Joseph Stalin and British leaders Winston Churchill and later Clement Attlee near Berlin to deliver an ultimatum to Japan: surrender of be destroyed.

West Berlin

The part of the capital city of Berlin that was under control of the Americans, Brits and French after World War II.

East Berlin

The part of the capital city of Berlin that was under control of the Soviet Union World War II.

Berlin Blockade

An attempt in 1948 by the Soviet Union to limit the ability of France, Great Britain and the United States to travel to their sectors of Berlin, which lay within Russian-occupied East Germany. Eventually, the western powers instituted an airlift that lasted nearly a year and delivered much-needed supplies and relief to West Berlin. Coming just three years after the end of World War II, the blockade was the first major clash of the Cold War and foreshadowed future conflict over the city of Berlin.

Arms Race

The buildup of arms was also a characteristic of the Cold War between the U.S. and the Soviet Union, though the development of nuclear weapons changed the stakes for the par.

Dwight Eisenhower

Supreme Commander of the US Forces in Europe during World War II; became President of the US and during his two terms presided over the conomically prosperous 1950s. He was praised for his dignity and decency, though critcized for not being more assertive on civil rights

Eisenhower Doctrine

Policy of the US that it would defend the Middle East against attack by any communist country. Restatement of the containment policy.

G.I Bill of Rights

A law passed in 1944 that provided educational and other benefits for people who had served in the armed forces in World War II. Benefits are still available to persons honorably discharged from the armed forces. Suburbs Neighborhoods formed away from the city

Baby Boomers

A person who was born between 1946 and 1964. This generation makes up a substantial portion of the North American population. Representing nearly 20% of the American public, and had a significant impact on the economy.

Interstate Highway System

A network of U.S. highways connecting the 48 contiguous states and most of the cities with populations above 50,000, begun in the 1950s and estimated to carry about a fifth of the nation's traffic. This was passed by President Eisenhower.

NAACP

An organization that promotes the rights and welfare of black people. It is one of the oldest civil rights organization in the United States, founded in 1909. Among the it's achievements was a lawsuit that resulted in the Supreme Court's landmark decision in Brown versus Board of Education, in 1954, which declared the segregation of public schools unconstitutional.

Brown v Board of Education
  1. *Equal Protection
Segregation

The act or policy of separating people of different races, religions or sexes and treating them in a different way

Thurgood Marshall

The first African American judge of the US Supreme Court. He is remembered especially for winning the 1954 case before the Supreme Court which ended segregation in public schools.

Montgomery Bus Boycott

A political and social protest campaign started in 1955 in Montgomery, Alabama, intended to oppose the city's policy of racial segregation on its public transit system. The ensuing struggle lasted from December 5, 1955, to December 21, 1956, and led to a United States Supreme Court decision that declared the Alabama and Montgomery laws requiring segregated buses unconstitutional.

Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.

U.S. Baptist minister and civil rights leader. A noted orator, he opposed discrimination against blacks by organizing nonviolent resistance and peaceful mass demonstrations. He was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee. Nobel Peace Prize (1964)

Southern Christian Leadership Conference

Civil-rights organization founded in 1957 by Martin Luther King, Jr., and headed by him until his assassination in 1968. Composed largely of African-American clergy from the South and an outgrowth of the Montgomery, Ala., bus boycott that King had led, it advocated nonviolent passive resistance as the means of securing equality for African Americans. It sponsored the massive march on Washington in 1963.

Social Activism

The attitude of taking an active part in events, especially in a social context.

Sit-Ins

A form of protest where people from an unwanted race sat in an area where their kind was not wanted. Famous one in North Carolina, Greensboro at Woolworth's store.

Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee

One of the principal organizations of the American Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s. It emerged from a series of student meetings led by Ella Baker held at Shaw University in Raleigh, North Carolina in April of 1960. It grew into a large organization with many supporters in the North who helped raise funds to support their work in the South, allowing full-time workers to have a $10 a week salary. Many unpaid volunteers also worked with this group on projects in Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Arkansas, and Maryland. They played a major role in the sit-ins and freedom rides, a leading role in the 1963 March on Washington, the Freedom Summer, and the MFDP. young people.

Freedom Riders

A group of northern idealists active in the civil rights movement, who included both blacks and whites. They rode buses into the South in the early 1960s in order to challenge racial segregation. They were regularly attacked by mobs of angry whites and received often belated protection from federal officers.

March on Washington (1963)

A large political rally that took place in Washington, D.C. on August 28, 1963. Martin Luther King, Jr. delivered his historic "I Have a Dream" speech advocating racial harmony at the Lincoln Memorial during the march. widely credited as helping lead to the Civil Rights Act (1964) and the National Voting Rights Act (1965). 80% of the marchers were black.

Civil Rights Act of 1964

Landmark piece of legislation in the United States that outlawed racial segregation in schools, public places, and employment. Conceived to help African Americans, the bill was amended prior to passage to protect women, and explicitly included white people for the first time. It also created the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.

Voting Rights Act of 1965

Outlawed discriminatory voting practices that had been responsible for the widespread disenfranchisement of African Americans in the United States. Echoing the language of the 15th Amendment, the Act prohibited states from imposing any "voting qualification or prerequisite to voting, or standard, practice, or procedure ... to deny or abridge the right of any citizen of the United States to vote on account of race or color." specifically no literacy tests. signed into law by LBJ.

Letter from Birmingham Jail

(1963) A letter that Martin Luther King, Jr., addressed to his fellow clergymen while he was in jail in Birmingham, Alabama, in 1963, after a nonviolent protest against racial segregation

Black Panthers

An African-American organization established to promote Black Power and self-defense through acts of social agitation. It was active in the United States from the mid-1960s into the 1970s.They achieved national and international presence through their deep involvement in the local community. The Black Power movement was one of the most significant movements (with regards to social, political, and cultural aspects). " The movement had provocative rhetoric, militant posture, and cultural and political flourishes permanently altered the contours of American Identity. started in Oakland, CA.

Malcolm X

American activist. A member of the Nation of Islam(1952-1963), he advocated separatism and blackpride. After converting to orthodox Islam, he founded the Organization of Afro-American Unity (1964) and was assassinated in Harlem.

Lyndon B Johnson

He came into power after Kennedy's assassination in Texas. He was a champion of civil rights legislation and the "war on poverty." He was bent on accruing a reputation like that of FDR for his Great Society, a dream of an American society of equality and opportunity, but instead was saddled with the Vietnam war. Known for his push for Medicare and Medicaid, as well as the Immigration Act of 1965 which did away with national-origins quotas and increased legal immigration.

"War on Poverty"

Waged by Johnson's Great Society programs that presented a classic liberal platform.

"Great Society"

Johnson demanded an end to poverty and racial injustice, promising to carry on JFK's legacy but wanting to add in his own plans and ideas. He was bent on fixing the inequalities of US society and planned to end segregation among other racial injustices. He wanted to secure a reputation like that of FDR with a similar New Deal kind of structure. This is what Johnson wanted to be known and remembered for but instead he was stuck with the Vietnam war which ended up taking all his time.

Medicare

Is the federal health insurance program for people who are 65 or older, certain younger people with disabilities, and people with End-Stage Renal Disease

Medicaid

A joint federal and state program that helps low-income individuals or families pay for the costs associated with long-term medical and custodial care, provided they qualify. Although largely funded by the federal government, Medicaid is run by the state where coverage may vary.

Warren Court

Lead by Chief Justice Earl Warren, it was known for preserving individual rights and many claimed that the decisions it made overstepped its jurisdiction and was too involved in people's lives. Cases included Brown v. Board of Education, Gideon v. Wainwright, Griswold v. State of CT, Miranda v. Arizona, and Loving v. State of VA.

Vietnam War

Was a Cold War conflict. A protracted military conflict (1954-1975) between South Vietnam, supported by United States forces, and Communist North Vietnam. The war resulted in a North Vietnamese victory and unification of Vietnam under Communist rule.

Ho Chi Minh

Was a Vietnamese Communist revolutionary leader who was prime minister and president of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam.

Geneva Accords

Arranged a settlement which brought about an end to the First Indochina War. The agreement was reached at the end of the Geneva Conference. A ceasefire was signed and France agreed to withdraw its troops from the region.

Vietcong

Communist guerrilla movement in Vietnam that fought the South Vietnamese government forces 1954-75 with the support of the North Vietnamese army and opposed the South Vietnamese and US forces in the Vietnam War.

SEATO

International organization for collective defense in Southeast Asia created by the Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty, or Manila Pact, signed in September 1954 in Manila, Philippines.

Guerrilla Warfare

Is a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants such as armed civilians or irregulars use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military.

Gulf of Tonkin Resolution

A joint resolution of the U.S. Congress passed on August 7, 1964 in direct response to a minor naval engagement It is of historical significance because it gave U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson authorization, without a formal declaration of war by Congress, for the use of military force in Southeast Asia.

Tet offensive

Executed by the North Vietnam Army and the Viet Kong in '68, the Viet Kong almost succeeded in taking the capital of S.V. and took over the US Embassy. This was captured live on TV and after all that Johnson had been promising, it had a huge impact on the American public. There was much doubt directed at the Johnson administration and the spark of the belief that perhaps it was time to just pull out of the war. This was a turning point. It represented a loss of American morale and the flame of larger anti-war protests. Veterans marched against the war. In 1968 US counter culture spread globally and there were protests around the world

Richard M. Nixon

He was in 1956 Eisenhower's Vice-President., When he was elected there was high inflation and economic recession from high spending in the war. His greatest success was easing coldwar tensions and with forign countries. He was impeached because of the Watergate Scandal but resigned before he was removed from office., 37th President of the United States (1969-1974) and the only president to resign the office. He initially escalated the Vietnam War, overseeing secret bombing campaigns, but soon withdrew 540,000 American troops and successfully negotiated a ceasefire with North Vietnam, effectively ending American involvement in the war. He was responsible for the Nixon Doctrine. He was also the first President to ever resign, due to the Watergate scandal.

Vietnamization

Nixon's policy that involved withdrawing 540,000 US troops from South Vietnam over an extended period of time. It also included a gradual take over of the South Vietnamese taking responsibility of fighting their own war by American-provided money, weapons, training, and advice.

Cambodia

Is a Southeast Asian nation were a series of military operations conducted in eastern Cambodia during mid-1970 by the United States and South Vietnam during the Vietnam War. These invasions were a result of policy of former President Richard Nixon whose decision it was to invade. A total of 13 major operations were conducted

Dr. Henry Kissinger

Was an American diplomat and political scientist. He served as National Security Advisor and later concurrently as Secretary of State in the administrations of Presidents Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford. He had begun meeting secretly on Nixon's behalf with North Vietnamese officials in Paris to negotiate an end to the war in Vietnam. He was also preparing the president's path to Beijing and Moscow.

Paris Peace Accords

This intended to establish peace in Vietnam and an end to the Vietnam War. It ended direct U.S. military combat, and temporarily stopped the fighting between North and South Vietnam.

Hawks vs. Doves

Popularly, "hawks" are those who advocate an aggressive foreign policy based on strong military power. "Doves" try to resolve international conflicts without the threat of force.

Media

The main means of mass communication (especially television, radio, newspapers, and the Internet) regarded collectively.

Antiwar protests

was a student protest that started as the Free Speech movement in California and spread around the world. All members of the Anti-War Movement shared an opposition to war in Vietnam and condemned U.S. presence there. They claimed this was violating Vietnam's rights. This movement resulted in growing activism on campuses aimed at social reform etc. Primarily a middle-class movement. CULTURAL.

War Powers Act

This act stated that the president must report to Congress within 2 days of putting troops in danger in a foreign country, and there would be a 60 to 90 day limit for over seas troop presence.

Women's Liberation Movement

This refers to a series of campaigns for reforms on issues such as reproductive rights, domestic violence, maternity leave, equal pay, women's suffrage, sexual harassment, and sexual violence

National Organization of Women

Founded by Betty Friedan; organization formed to work for economic and legal rights of women; demanded equality in educational and job opportunies, wages, and political representation; creation of childcare facilities; wanted Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) enforce its legal mandate to end sex discrimination

Equal Rights Amendment

Supported by the National Organization for Women, this amendment would prevent all gender-based discrimination practices. However, it never passed the ratification process.

Roe v Wade

(1973) *Right of Privacy

Watergate Scandal

Was a major political scandal that occurred in the United States in the 1970s as a result of the June 17, 1972 break-in at the Democratic National Committee (DNC) headquarters. The members of an association working to have Nixon re-elected, CREEP, were involved in a burglary, and it was then linked to Nixon. The CREEP group had also gotten lots of money from unidentifiable places. Suspicion set in and Nixon was accused of getting illegal help in being re-elected. Nixon tried to use government to cover-up his involvement. Impeachment proceedings were started but Nixon resigned from his office in Aug. 9, 1974

The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)

Group of oil-exporting nations that worked together to regulate the price and supply of oil.

Jimmy Carter

A democratic candidate and elected in 1976 as a Washington "outsider" (1977 1981) He defeated Gerald Ford in 1976. As President, he arranged the Camp David Accords between Egypt and Israel in 1978 but saw his foreign policy legacy tarnished by the Iranian Revolution and hostage crisis in 1979. Domestically, he tried to rally the American spirit in the face of economic decline, but was unable to stop the rapid increase in inflation. After leaving the presidency, he achieved widespread respect as an elder statesman and won the Nobel Peace Prize in 2002.

Panama Canal Treaty

1978 - Passed by President Carter, these called for the gradual return of the Panama Canal to the people and government of Panama. They provided for the transfer of canal ownership to Panama in 1999 and guaranteed its neutrality.

Camp David Accords

Peace talks between Egypt and Israel mediated by President Carter. Was signed by Israel's leader, Menachem Begin, and Egypt's leader, Anwar el-Sadat, on Sept. 17,1978, creating a framework for peace in the Middle East. The treaty, however, fell apart when Sadat was assassinated by Islamic fundamentalists in 1981.

Iranian Revolution

(1978-1979) a revolution against the shah of Iran led by the Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, which resulted in Iran becoming an Islamic Republic with Khomeini as its leader, the revolution that transformed Iran from a monarchy under Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi to an Islamic republic under Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, Mullahs (religious leaders) overthrow the US backed Shah and establish a theocracy (religious government) that hated the US, Many Iranians opposed Reza Shah Pahlavi, there was also a hatred of Westernization. There was a revival in Islam, and Ayatollah Khomeini soon emerged as the religious opposition to the Shah. He organized demonstrations and riots, and the Shah eventually left. Khomeini then seized power in Iran.

Iran Hostage Crisis

The 444 days in which American embassy workers were held captive by Iranian revolutionaries after young Muslim fundamentalists overthrew the oppressive regime of the American-backed shah, forcing him into exile. These revolutionaries triggered an energy crisis by cutting off Iranian oil. The crisis began when revolutionaries stormed the American embassy, demanding that the United States return the shah to Iran for trial. The episode was marked by botched diplomacy and failed rescue attempts by the Carter Administration. After permanently damaging relations between the two countries, the crisis ended with the hostage's release the day Ronald Reagan became president

Ronald Reagan

First elected president in 1980 and elected again in 1984. He ran on a campaign based on the common man and "populist" ideas. He served as governor of California from 1966-1974and he participated in the McCarthy Communist scare. Iran released hostages on his Inauguration Day in 1980. While president, he developed Reaganomics, the trickle down effect of government incentives. He cut out many welfare and public works programs. He used the Strategic Defense Initiative to avoid conflict. His meetings with Gorbachev were the first steps to ending the Cold War. He was also responsible for the Iran-contra Affair which bought hostages with guns., 1981-1989,"Great Communicator" Republican, conservative economic policies, replaced liberal Democrats in upper house with conservative Democrats or "boll weevils" , at reelection time, Jesse Jackson first black presidential candidate, Geraldine Ferraro as VP running mate (first woman), Was an Army Captain, Hollywood actor and Governor of California before becoming president; Berlin Wall separating Germany was torn down; appointed the first woman to the Supreme Court

Reagan Doctrine

Was a strategy orchestrated and implemented by the United States under the Reagan Administration to overwhelm the global influence of the Soviet Union during the final years of the Cold War. The United States provided overt and covert aid to anti-communist guerrillas and resistance movements in an effort to "roll back" Soviet-backed communist governments in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. The doctrine was designed to diminish Soviet influence in these regions as part of the administration's overall Cold War strategy.

Mikhail Gorbachev

Last leader of the Soviet Union. Gorbachev assumed control in 1985 and ushered in a period of reforms known as glasnost and perestroika. On four occasions, he met U.S. president Ronald Reagan to negotiate arms reduction treaties and other measures to thaw the Cold War. In 1991, after surviving a failed military coup against him, he dissolved the Soviet Union and disbanded the Communist Party.

George H.W. Bush

41st President of the United States. A former congressman, diplomat, businessman, Republican party chairman, and director the CIA, Bush served for eight years as Reagan's vice president before being elected President in 1988. As president, he oversaw the end of the Cold War and the revitalization of the American military in the Persian Gulf War. He faced a severe economic recession late in his term that severely damaged his popularity, and he lost his bid for reelection in 1992.

Bill Clinton

Elected President in 1992 as the first democratic president since Jimmy Carter and a self-proclaimed activist. He had a very domestic agenda. When in office he had a lot of controversial appointments. When a longtime friend, Vince Foster, committed suicide it sparked an escalating inquiry into some banking and real estate ventures involving the president and his wife in the early 1980s. This became known as the Whitewater affair.

World Trade Organization (WTO)

International trade organization that was promoted by Clinton, this organization was the successor to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, taking a step toward a global free-trade system. This was highly protested within the United States.

(NAFTA)

A free trade plan initiated in the Bush administration and enacted by a narrow vote in Congress in the early months of the Clinton administration. It established a common market without tariff barriers between the United States, Canada, and Mexico.

Election of 2000

This particular United States presidential election was a contest between Republican candidate George W. Bush, then-governor of Texas and son of former president George H. W. Bush, and Democratic candidate Al Gore, then-Vice President. Bill Clinton, the incumbent President, was vacating the position after serving the maximum two terms allowed by the Twenty-second Amendment. Bush narrowly won the November 7 election, with 271 electoral votes to Gore's 266 (with one elector abstaining in the official tally). The election was noteworthy for a controversy over the awarding of Florida's 25 electoral votes, the subsequent recount process in that state, and the unusual event of the winning candidate having received fewer popular votes than the runner-up.

Globalization

The process of international integration arising from the interchange of world views, products, ideas and other aspects of culture.

Social Movements

Is a type of group action. They are large, sometimes informal, groupings of individuals or organizations which focus on specific political or social issues.

Cesar Chavez

Mexican-American migrant farm worker & founder of the United Farm Workers Organizing Committee in 1963. He helped exploited Chicano workers with his successful "boycott grapes" movement that led to better pay, limits on the use of toxic fertilizers, and recognition of farm workers' collective bargaining right.

United Farm Workers (UFW)

Is a union for agricultural laborers, primarily in California. Founded by charismatic leader, Cesar Chavez, UFW reached the peak of its influence in the 1970s, then declined until his death in 1993.

American Indian Movement (AIM)

A coalition that fought for Indian rights guaranteed by treaties(broken by the U.S. government many, many times over) and better conditions and opportunities for American Indians.

26th Amendment

This Amendment prohibits the states and the federal government from using age as a reason for denying citizens of the United States who are at least eighteen years old the right to vote.

Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)

Legislation passed in 1990 that prohibits discrimination against people with disabilities. Under this Act, discrimination against a disabled person is illegal in employment, transportation, public accommodations, communications and government activities.

Affirmative Action

An action or policy favoring those who tend to suffer from discrimination, especially in relation to employment or education; positive discrimination.

Miranda v Arizona (1966)

(1966) *Rights of the Accused

Roe v Wade (1973)

(1973) *Right of Privacy

Refugee

A person who has been forced to leave their country in order to escape war, persecution, or natural disaster.

Terrorism

The unlawful use of force or violence against individuals or property to coerce or intimidate governments or societies to achieve political, religious, or idealoigal goals

September 11, 2001

A Terrorist attack. A total of 19 hijackers, 15 were from Saudi Arabia, the others were from Egypt and the United Arab Emirates, They hijacked 4 planes, one hit the Pentagon, two hit the Twin Towers, and the 4th one was hijacked and the passengers took the plane and crashed the plane in Pennsylvania to protect any other Americans from harm.

USA Patriot Act

After September 11, congress passed a security legislation in order to make the country safer. It gives the authorities enhanced powers, such as looking up library records, to protect the country. Act is an acronym for Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism.

Stamp Act

an act of the British Parliament in 1765 that exacted revenue from the American colonies by imposing a stamp duty on newspapers and legal and commercial documents. Colonial opposition led to the act's repeal in 1766 and helped encourage the revolutionary movement against the Crown.

Intolerable Acts

Also known as the Coercive Acts; a series of British measures passed in 1774 and designed to punish the Massachusetts colonists for the Boston Tea Party. For example, one of the laws closed the port of Boston until the colonists paid for the tea that they had destroyed.

Sons of Liberty

A group of patriots organized by Samuel Adams to protest the Stamp Act and other actions of the British government.

patriot

An American that wanted independence from Britain.

loyalist

A person in America who stayed loyal to Britain and the king.

Boston Massacre

a conflict between the colonists and British soldiers in King Street, Boston on March 5th 1770. Five colonists were killed.

Battles of Lexington and Concord

battles which marked the beginning of the American Revolution; also known as "The shot heard around the world."

Battle of Yorktown

October 19, 1781 - Last major battle of the Revolutionary War. American troops under George Washington, British troops under Charles Cornwallis Cornwallis was forced to surrender.

Valley Forge

Where did the Patriot forces endure a winter of terrible suffering?

Embargo

a refusal to trade with another country

Mexican War

(1846-1848) The war between the United States and Mexico in which the United States acquired one half of the Mexican territory.

Gadsden Purchase

(1853) U.S. purchase of land from Mexico that included the southern parts of present-day Arizona and New Mexico; set the current borders of the contiguous United States (the U.S. states, minus Hawaii, Alaska, and commonwealth of Puerto Rico)

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