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Qui a invente l'education

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C'est... ce... sacré Charlemagne... sa-cré Char-le-magne! la la la

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Who is the french queen who said let them eat cake?

This quotation is popularly attributed to Marie Antoinette, the wife of King Louis XVI and the last Queen of France. In response to the news that the French peasants had no bread and were starving, she allegedly said, "let them eat cake." However, she never actually said that. Even though the quotation is attributed to her, it was actually spoken a century before by Marie-Therese, wife of Louis XIV. It was a callous and ignorant statement and she, Marie Antoinette, was neither. See the Related Links below.The quote was: 'Let them eat brioche' but its unlikely that she ever said this. (A brioche is a very enriched bread, more like a cake.)The expression first appeared in The Confessions of Jean-Jacques Rousseau, completed in 1769 when Marie Antoinette was 13, where he wrote:"Enfin je me rappelai le pis-aller d'une grande princesse à qui l'on disait que les paysans n'avaient pas de pain, et qui répondit : Qu'ils mangent de la brioche."Translation:"Finally I recalled the last resort of a great princess who was told that the peasants had no bread, and who responded: "Let them eat brioche."This is the only recorded use of the expression. The 'great princess' was clearly someone else.


What does Histoire a l'eau de rose mean?

"Eau de rose" ou "Eau de fleurs d'orangers" are products that are used in Middle Eastern/ North African cakes based from semolina or dried bread such as Basboussa or Qalb EL Louz or Khoubz Tounes. The products are water-based liquids to which water is mixed to a cold pressed oil from roses or orange flowers. The product is called "Mazhar" in Arabic and comes in a half pint bottles which are sold in stores carrying middle eastern products. Vous n'avez rien compris! Les histoires à l'eau de rose are a specific genre of paperback books known in English as romantic novels. L'expression 'à l'eau de rose' désigne un roman, une histoire un peu fade, mièvre, sentimental. C'est-à-dire gentillet, insipide, qui manque d'action etc (Wikipèdia)


What are the words to the Marseillaise?

Usually only the first verse is sung; on special occasions the last. Here, however, is the whole thing:Allons enfants de la PatrieLe jour de gloire est arrivé !Contre nous de la tyrannieL'étendard sanglant est levéEntendez-vous dans nos campagnesMugir ces féroces soldats?Ils viennent jusque dans vos bras.Égorger vos fils, vos compagnes!Aux armes citoyensFormez vos bataillonsMarchons, marchonsQu'un sang impurAbreuve nos sillonsQue veut cette horde d'esclavesDe traîtres, de rois conjurés?Pour qui ces ignobles entravesCes fers dès longtemps préparés?Français, pour nous, ah! quel outrageQuels transports il doit exciter?C'est nous qu'on ose méditerDe rendre à l'antique esclavage!Quoi ces cohortes étrangères!Feraient la loi dans nos foyers!Quoi! ces phalanges mercenairesTerrasseraient nos fils guerriers!Grand Dieu! par des mains enchaînéesNos fronts sous le joug se ploieraientDe vils despotes deviendraientLes maîtres des destinées.Tremblez, tyrans et vous perfidesL'opprobre de tous les partisTremblez! vos projets parricidesVont enfin recevoir leurs prix!Tout est soldat pour vous combattreS'ils tombent, nos jeunes hérosLa France en produit de nouveaux,Contre vous tout prêts à se battre.Français, en guerriers magnanimesPortez ou retenez vos coups!Épargnez ces tristes victimesÀ regret s'armant contre nousMais ces despotes sanguinairesMais ces complices de BouilléTous ces tigres qui, sans pitiéDéchirent le sein de leur mère!Nous entrerons dans la carrièreQuand nos aînés n'y seront plusNous y trouverons leur poussièreEt la trace de leurs vertusBien moins jaloux de leur survivreQue de partager leur cercueilNous aurons le sublime orgueilDe les venger ou de les suivre!Amour sacré de la PatrieConduis, soutiens nos bras vengeursLiberté, Liberté chérieCombats avec tes défenseurs!Sous nos drapeaux, que la victoireAccoure à tes mâles accentsQue tes ennemis expirantsVoient ton triomphe et notre gloire!


Where were people branded with a fleur de lis?

According the Code Noir (Black Code) that was enacted by King Louis XIV in 1685, Black American slaves were subjected to certain types of corporal punishments if they disobeyed the Code. One of those punishments included being branded with a Fleur de Lis." Article 38L'esclave fugitif qui aura été en fuite pendant un mois, à compter du jour que son maître l'aura dénoncé en justice, aura les oreilles coupées et sera marqué d'une fleur de lis une épaule; s'il récidive un autre mois pareillement du jour de la dénonciation, il aura le jarret coupé, et il sera marqué d'une fleur de lys sur l'autre épaule; et, la troisième fois, il sera puni de mort. "http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/amsudant/guyanefr1685.htmIn English..."Article XXXVIII. The fugitive slave who has been on the run for one month from the day his master reported him to the police, shall have his ears cut off and shall be branded with a fleur de lys on one shoulder. If he commits the same infraction for another month, again counting from the day he is reported, he shall have his hamstring cut and be branded with a fleur de lys on the other shoulder. The third time, he shall be put to death."http://chnm.gmu.edu/revolution/d/335/


How many members do the sas operate with?

Nobody knows the "exact" numbers as they like to keep a low profile.Obviously the world knows about them as there the most copied regiment in the world but nobody knows when,where and "if" they will be deployed into war zones,they keep there missions secret until after they have been completed.Most of the time the British S.A.S enter wars without anybody ever realising that they are there.There have been many cases throughout history where the S.A.S have been suspected to have been in war zones to complete missions without anybody even realising they have been and gone until long after.Genraly S.A.S enter in teams of 4,6,8,10, or 12 men and are capable of doing what 50 other soldiers are capable of,training to be a larger force than they actuly are is one of the many things they specialise in.The British S.A.S and S.B.S are there most sucesfull in history,longest,hardest trained and most copied regiment in the world.List of countries that copy/base themselves on S.A.S...American - Delta Force - Modeld on S.A.SAustralia - Special Air Service RegimentNew Zealand - New Zealand Special Air ServiceCanada - Joint Task Force 2Israel - Sayeret MatkalAustralia - Extant - Australian Special Air Service Regiment.Belgium - Extant - Belgian Special Forces Group, closely modelled on the SAS and consisting of Land, Air and Boat sections. Comprises about 120 operational personnel distinguished by the maroon beret with the Long Range Reconnaissance Patrol insignia.Defunct - During WWII 5 (Belgian) SAS squadron, from 1944 '5 SAS' Regiment, consisted of Belgian volunteers. Notable as the first Allied troops to enter Belgium and the first to cross the Siegfried line, into Germany. Traditions are currently continued by 1 PARA of the Paracommando Brigade.Canada - Extant - The Canadian Military's Joint Task Force 2 is closely modelled on the SAS. (Although it traces its lineage to the Canadian SAS Company created in 1946, its structure is not generally known.)Defunct - An SAS Company was created in 1946 and disbanded in 1948.[2]Denmark - Frømandskorpset (Naval Special Forces) and Jægerkorpset (Army Special Forces).France - The 1st Marine Infantry Parachute Regiment (1er Régiment Parachutiste d'Infanterie de Marine) (1er RPIMa:SAS), is the heir of the World War II French SAS units ('French' Squadron, 1 SAS from 1er Compagnie, BIA; 3 and 4 SAS, ie, 3 BIA and 4 BIA, subsequently 3 RCP and 2 RCP). Its official motto is "qui ose gagne", the French translation of "Who Dares Wins". The Regiment's operators are also nicknamed "les SAS français" (the French SAS). Recently, the Regiment created a Squadron (3rd Company) Patrouilles SAS or "PATSAS" (SAS Patrols), using heavily-armed jeeps for raids behind enemy lines (particularly with 22 SAS and the Australian SAS in Afghanistan).Germany - The German Army Special Forces unit, the KSK (Kommando Spezialkräfte), is also closely patterned on the SAS.Greece - Greek Special Forces, originate from the post-war ?.?.?. (spelled L.O.K. from "Loxoi Oreinon Katadromon" - Mountain Raider Detachments) which were the post-WWII successor of the "Sacred Band" ("Ieros Loxos"). The "Sacred Band" was formed in 1942 in the Middle East from a group of dedicated volunteers, former officers and officer cadets who relinquished their rank and commission in order to fight as regular soldiers. Under their C.O. - Col. Christodoulos Tsigantes, they fought alongside the SAS and SBS in the Libyan desert and the Aegean as well as with General Leclerc's Free French in Tunisia. It is no coincidence that modern Greek Special Forces insignia, bears a distinct resemblance to their brethren SAS insignia, with a winged, upward pointing sword and underscribed motto "? ?????? ????" (essentially translation of "Who Dares Wins").Hong Kong - The Hong Kong Special Duties Unit is a part of the Hong Kong Police Force and was formed in 1973. SDU was modelled on the SAS and was trained by the SAS and SBS.Indonesia - Detasemen Bravo Paskhas TNI AU.Israel - The Sayeret Matkal, an elite unit of the IDF, is modelled on the SAS, and shares the same motto, "Who Dares Wins." Responsible for Operation Entebbe. Also Sayeret Shaldag.Italy - The Army's 9th Parachute Assault Regiment, and the Carabinieri's Gruppo di Intervento Speciale are partly based on the SAS.Japan - The National Police Agency's Special Assault Team received training from British SAS operators prior to its activation on 1 April 1996.Malaysia - The Malaysian VAT 69/UTK is a special forces of the Royal Malaysian Police Force based on by the SAS. VAT 69 modelled on and trained by the British SAS in 1969 for fighting the communist insurgency and Special Actions Unit (Unit Tindakan Khas) was based from the SAS and increased on by the United States SWAT after hostage incident by JRA Terrorist in August 1975. On 20 October 1997, VAT 69 and UTK merged and was then called Pasukan Gerakan Khas (Special Operations Force).Netherlands - The Korps Commandotroepen.New Zealand - Special Air Service of New Zealand.Norway - Forsvarets Spesialkommando (FSK).Pakistan - The SSG commandos are also partly based on the SAS.Philippines - The Philippine National Police's (PNP) Special Action Force was believed to have been based on the lines of the British SAS.Poland - GROM, partly based on the SAS.Rhodesia - 'C' Squadron 22 SAS was composed of Rhodesian troops. It formed the nucleus of the Rhodesian SAS Regiment after the end of the Malayan Emergency in 1953, and subsequently the British SAS have never raised another 'C' Squadron within 22 SAS. The Rhodesian SAS disbanded in December 1980 after the country became Zimbabwe. (See SAS Rhodesia by Fourie, C., & Pittaway, J., published Dandy Agencies, Durban, South Africa, 2003.)Sri Lanka - SpeA breif History of an S.A.S legend...John Lofty Wiseman Part of SAS History -Trooper John Wiseman was born in Britain in 1941John Wiseman was the first to train members of the Green Berets which was at the formation of the USA's Delta Force who are of the 1st Special Forces Operational Detachment-Delta (1st SFOD-D) - commonly known as Delta in the U.S. Army, Delta Force by civilians, and Combat Applications Group by the Department of Defense - is a Special Operations Force (SOF) and an integral element of the Joint Special Operations Command (JSOC). Delta Force's primary tasks are counter-terrorism and national intervention operations, although it is an extremely versatile group capable of assuming many missions, including, but not limited to, rescuing hostages, raids, and eliminating covert enemy forces. Delta Force conducts missions similar to those attributed to the British Special Air Service (SAS), on which it was originally modelled.John Wiseman set a record being the youngest to pass SAS Selection at the very young age of 18 which is no longer possible and now cannot be beat. His service with the Special Air Service Regiment started in 1958 and served with 22 SAS for approx. 26 years. His worldwide service saw activity in every theatre of special forces operation and was,Sergeant Major, B Squadron Sabre Squadron 22 SASSergeant Major 22 SAS Training WingHead of Operational Research 22 SASHe set up the SP Team Counter Hi-Jack now CRW Counter Revolutionary Warfare Wing, The CRW Wing is now nominally made up of the personnel drawn from a single squadron, originally designated "Pagoda", which is relieved every 6 - 9 months. The squadron is split up into two combined troops, "Red" and "Blue", with each troop made up of an assault group and a sniper team. Though the counter-terrorist teams are based at RHQ in Hereford, a specialist eight-man team is based within the outer London region (4, south London border & 4, north London border/Hertfordshire). This team rapidly responds to any situation in London as requiredHe help set up the SAS Counter-Terrorist now known as 'The Team' for such teams involved in Operation Nimrod The Iranian Embassy Siege of 1980 was a terrorist siege of the Iranian embassy in London. The siege was ended when British special forces, the Special Air Service (SAS), stormed the building in Operation Nimrod. The incident brought the SAS to the world's attention as the whole episode was played out in the media. Which was undertaken from the SAS barracks Stirling Lines in Hereford.John also ran Survival Training School for 22 SAS at Hereford Stirling Lines for survival skills on land, sea, jungle, desert, arctic, and all manor of wilderness environments. Much of the JWIC Jungle Warfare Instructors Course conducted in Borneo Malaysia is built on the solid foundations laid by John Wiseman and those that followed him. The Jungle Warfare Wing (JWW) is located on the island of Borneo, close to the border with Sarawak (Malaysia) and is supported by the British Army's Brunei Garrison. JWW exists to provide a jungle training facility to meet the requirement to train jungle warfare instructors for the British SAS and other regimentsJohn also ran SAS Selection Course which is the hardest course in the world to pass and out of 100 only 5% are consider fit to join the Regiment before they start the real training 'Continuation Training'. The Commanding Officer of 22 SAS is alleged to have said that, "John Lofty Wiseman is an SAS legend" a real accolade from the best.John Lofty Wiseman has trained survival to many specialists over the years both military and civilian and has undoubtedly saved many lives by his love of all things survival. It is his principles of survival and tools which he introduced that has had the biggest impact on the survival world whose achievements cannot be overestimated! Special Forces training particularly in the desert environment in which the regiment first fought and was born as a result of the persistence of David Stirling.

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