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Nobel peace prize winner and Chairman of the Supreme Soviet Mikhail Gorbachev was born February 3, 1931. As a law student, Gorbachev became a member of the Communist Part of the Soviet Union. Gorbachev is known for contributing to the resolution of the Cold War. Along with meeting with former President Ronald Regan, he announced new polices for the Soviet Union. These polices meant the withdrawal of Soviet troops in Central Europe. In 1987 Gorbachev was Time Magazines Man of the year and only two years later he was featured as Time's Man of the Decade. Following these removal acts and awards from Time Magazine, Gorbachev was placed as the recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize in 1990. Gorbachev started leading the Soviet Union towards new political policies that included a less communistic and a more democratic government with free elections. The Soviet Union experienced their first free elections in 1989. Despite his hard efforts to make the Soviet Union a more stabilized and free democracy he survived a coup in 1991 and was known as the first Soviet leader to resign office in 1992. Though Gorbachev is still living his legacy is viewed differently among people. Most people consider him a noble man that helped end the violence of the Soviet Union during the Cold War and the democratization of Eastern Europe. He was unpopular his first year in office because of the attempt to reduce alcohol consumption and in 1990 his approval with the Soviet Union fell dramatically as their economic status also dropped.

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Israel withdrew from Gaza and Jericho in

NATO powers led a military peacekeeping force in

Which countries that had been united as one nation for 75 years agreed in early 1993 to divide themselves into separate republics

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What Russian president resigned in the 1990?

It was Mikhail Gorbachev on 25 December 1991.


What historical event happen since 1989?

Berlin wall fell and I was there. I even own a copy of Time Magazine from then. I was 8 years old and got out of school because of how powerful a moment it was in history for Germany. I'm German American so I live in both cultures and to say it was unlike anything I have ever experienced is, to put it mildly. For both of my countries to celebrate the end of a horrific chapter in history felt so good. Not to mention members of my German family caught on the other side finally got reunited and we had out first united Garden Pary (Family Reunion) that July and if you could have heard the stories and seen the happiness shared by all it would have made you weep


What happened on March 14?

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What caused the fall of Nicolas II and the Russian Empire?

Nicholas II was the last Tsar of Russia who also claimed the title of Grand Duke of Finland and King of Poland. His official title was Nicholas II, Emperor and Autocrat of all the Russia's and he ruled from 1894 until his abdication in 1917. His rise and fall can be attributed, as all great mythology teaches us, from his own hubris. There were, however, many social, economic and political factors that led to the fall of Nicholas II and the Russian Empire. Indeed, at the time of Nicholas II birth, the seeds of revolution were already fomenting as subversive Russian literature promulgated by such groups as The Decembrist's, The Petrashevsky Circle and by a man named Mikhail Bakunin, had become the popular propaganda of young students at Russian Universities. As Nicholas II was born in 1868, a young man by the name of Sergey Nechayev was attending St. Petersburg University, (although not officially enrolled), and had become well acquainted with the subversive literature so popular with Russian students. Between 1868-1869, Nechayev led a radical minority with another political dissenter Petr Tkachev and together with this group they devised the Program of Revolutionary Activities which advocated social revolution as the ultimate goal. It was here that Nechayev wrote the Catechism of a Revolutionary, that would haunt Nicholas II and his family for the rest of his life. The Catechism of a Revolutionary consisted of 26 rules or laws for the revolutionary to live by. In the History of Anarchism by Peter Marshall, Nechayev's Catechism is described as one of the most repulsive documents written in the history of terrorism. This document reflected a significant amount of Russian Revolutionary thought. Indeed, Vladimir I. Lenin openly admired Nechayev and Fyodor Dostoevsky modeled his character Verkhovensy of the Possessed after this man. After the Bolshevik Revolution Nechayev was hailed as a hero and several books, essays, articles and poems were written about him. The effect Nechayev had on the fall of the Russian Empire and Nicholas II demise can not be overlooked and his own words from the Catechism of a Revolutionary give remarkable insight into the commitment of the revolutionary cause. In a Catechism of a Revolutionary, Nechayev wrote: "The Revolutionist is a doomed man. He has no private interests, no affairs, sentiments, ties, property nor even a name of his own. His entire being is devoured by one purpose, one thought, one passion - the revolution. Heart and soul, not merely by word but by deed, he has severed every link with the social order and with the entire civilized world; with the laws, good manners, conventions, and morality of that world. He is its merciless enemy and continues to inhabit it with only one purpose - to destroy it." He urged the revolutionary to learn the arts and sciences of mechanics, physics, chemistry and even medicine and above all to learn the "living science of men" for one purpose only, which was the quickest and surest way to destroy "this filthy system". With such powerful and evocative words, young Nicholas II never really stood a chance with his own beliefs in absolute autocracy and the divine right of rule. But the political turmoil and seeds of revolution were not caused by Nicholas and his own hubris came long after Nechayev had died alone in a prison cell in 1882 twelve years before Nicholas II was crowned Tsar of Russia. At the age of twenty six years old, Nicholas' II father Alexander III died unexpectedly leaving the throne to an ill prepared son who reportedly asked his cousin; "What is going to happen to me and all of Russia?" The answer to that question came slowly but surely as Nicholas went about the business of administrating the affairs of Russia. His father Alexander III had spent a great deal of his rule formulating policy and Nicholas remained faithful to much of his fathers visions while focusing on the minutia of administration. Soon after Nicholas II ascended the throne he was petitioned by a deputation of various towns people comprised of farmers, laborers and peasants who urged the new Tsar to lead Russia towards a constitutional Monarchy but Nicholas turned his back on them responding with strong language that said: "I want everyone to know that I will devote all my strength to maintain, for the good of the whole nation, the principle of absolute autocracy, as firmly and as strongly as did my late lamented father." This attitude only strengthened the view of peasants and towns people that Nicholas was ignorant and indifferent to the needs of the people and the problems of political and social life for the poor. So, early on as the Tsar, Nicholas II earned an unpopular position among many of the people. Indeed, in 1895, Vladimir I. Lenin was arrested as a political dissident for his efforts in revolutionary causes and spent fourteen months in the infamous cell 193 of the St. Petersburg Remand Prison. Of course, Nicholas could not know at this time that such an action only cemented Lenin's cause, and it is doubtful he even knew who Lenin was at that time. Just a few months later, in May of 1896, while Lenin languished in a prison cell, Nicholas II was officially crowned as Tsar of all of the Russia's in an elaborate and costly ceremony as the discontent of people stricken with poverty in this land continued to grow. While the early years of Nicholas' II reign was not much more than a continuation of his fathers policies and goals, Nicholas did preside over the restoration of the gold standard for Russian currency and the building of the Great Siberian Railway which contributed to better trade in the Far East. He continued with his fathers efforts to strengthen ties between Russia and France and advocated a general policy of pacification with the rest of Europe which culminated in the now famous Hague Peace Conference which was among the first efforts at devising a reasonable expectation of rules of engagement and rules of war. Any expectation of a reign of peace on Nicholas' II part was, however, shattered by the unexpected attack of by Japan on the Russian Far East Fleet three hours before the Japanese made a formal declaration of war. Nicholas II was stunned by the attack and couldn't believe that it had been made without a formal declaration of war. His own advisor's had assured him the Japanese did not have it in them to attack. The Japanese, however, had just recently emerged from years of isolation as an industrial power in their own right and were adamant about preserving their sovereignty and obtaining an equal status with the Western powers. Japan had already been embroiled in the Sino-Japanese War hoping to secure China and Korea as essential buffers that would serve their national security but Russia convinced Germany and France to join them in what is now known as the Triple Intervention in April of 1895 which forced Japan to concede much of what they had gained. Russia's own ambitions of an increasing empire was more than alarming the Japanese. It was the building of the Trans-Siberian Railway to Port Arthur that became the focal point of concern and directly led to the infamous Boxer Rebellion of which both Japan and Russia became part of the Eight Nation Alliance formed to intervene in the Boxer Rebellion. Russian had sent troops to Manchuria to secure its own interests but assured the alliance they would leave Manchuria once the rebellion had subsided. When it was over, Russia did not leave and Japan became even more agitated. Japan had made several attempts at negotiations showing a willingness to concede Manchuria for control of Korea. With each attempt, Nicholas and his advisor's gave no response to Japans desire for control of Korea and on February 8th of 1904, Japan organized a sneak attack on the Russian fleet and eight days later Russia declared war on Japan. After many misadventures and lost battles the once great Russian Far East Fleet was reduced to near annihilation after the Battle of Tushima Strait and because of an uncompleted Trans Siberian Railway the army on land suffered many logistical problems. After Port Arthur fell to the Japanese, Nicholas II accepted mediation by the Americans and by mid 1905 the Russo-Japanese war had ended with the Treaty of Portsmouth. The seeming confidence that Czar Nicholas showed entering the war combined with a seeming ineptness for military strategy and finally losing the war only exasperated many people in Russia and the defeat revealed an autocratic failure too out of touch with his own people. By 1905 the long called for peoples revolution finally began as the bewildered Tsar stood by a nation in turmoil while his uncle the Grand Duke Sergei was killed by a bomb leaving the Kremlin. The same Nicholas II who asked his cousin upon ascending the throne what would become of him and Russia now sadly lamented in a letter to his mother: "It makes me sick to read the news! Nothing but strikes in schools and factories, murdered policemen, Cossacks and soldiers, riots, disorder, mutinies. But the ministers, instead of acting with quick decision, only assemble in council like a lot of frightened hens and cackle about providing united ministerial action... ominous quiet days began, quiet indeed because there was complete order in the streets, but at the same time everybody knew that something was going to happen - the troops were waiting for the signal, but the other side would not begin. One had the same feeling, as before a thunderstorm in summer! Everybody was on edge and extremely nervous and of course, that sort of strain could not go on for long.... We are in the midst of a revolution with an administrative apparatus entirely disorganized, and in this lies the main danger." This disorganization of an administrative apparatus directly led to the now infamous Bloody Sunday of the 22nd of January of 1905. While the reports of more than four thousand citizens killed that day is most likely greatly exaggerated, the Czar's officials gave a count of ninety six people dead and three hundred and thirty three injured and moderate figures put the dead as high as one thousand, the actual body count remains unknown. And even though after the incident Nicholas II wrote in his diary; "A painful day. Serious disorders took place in Petersburg when the workers tried to come to the Winter Palace. The troops have been forced to fire in several parts of the city and there are many killed and wounded. Lord, how painful and sad this is.", many of the people in the streets that day were reportedly heard shrieking; "The Tsar will not help us!" It was this fateful day that foreshadowed the doom of the Tsarist regime and Nicholas' II own demise. Indeed, the future Labour Prime Minister, Ramsey MacDonald, seized that moment to declare the Czar a "blood-stained creature and a common murderer" and earned Nicholas II the unenviable moniker of Bloody Nicholas. By November of that year, Vladimir Lenin had returned from his exile from Russia to aid in the Revolution and the Tsar's own begrudging attitude toward the Dumas, a faux advisory body to the Monarch forged by the October Constitution did little to assuage the people. Yet by 1907 Nicholas had manged to quell the revolution and Lenin went back into exile and the Czar had hopes for the peace he had for so long advocated. Of course, the peace that Nicholas yearned to see was only a veneer of simmering rage among the people and a useless salve for his own inner turmoil as he watched his youngest, his only son Alexi, struggle with hemophilia as the gathering storm that rained across Europe whispered softly of rumors of war. Then came the assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand in 1914 and brought about the crumbling of the Triple Alliance and Triple Entente, secret treaties made by rivaled nations, and drug the Tsar smack dab in the middle of World War I. For Russia, World War I was a total disaster. Although Nicholas was strongly advised against mobilizing his troops and even though the Tsar had no contingency plans for a partial mobilization let alone a full scale mobilization, Nicholas put the Russian army on alert and Germany and Austria interpreted this as a declaration of war. It was not, of course, a declaration of war and Russia had little to gain by entering into the conflict between the Slavic countries and Germany and Austria. Yet, Nicholas kept blundering any negotiations of peace and by August 1st 1914 Germany made its formal declaration of war and an Ill prepared Russia was led to war by an immensely unpopular Monarch who knew little of the strategies of war. Logistically it was a foolish nightmare for the Czar and his army as the Russian troops had to traverse more than 800 miles, (1,290km), to reach the front as opposed to the Germans who traveled less than a quarter of that distance. The munitions available to Russian troops was ridiculously inadequate and the heavy industry required to supply Nicholas' army was pathetically wanting. In spite of the clear signs that made it easy to predict a Russian failure, Nicholas forged ahead and ordered an attack on the German army in East Prussia but the Germans were quick to mobilize and handily defeated two of the Russian army invaders. It was the Battle of Tannenberg where Nicholas met his own Waterloo and practically his entire army was annihilated and many of his loyal officers, so desperately needed to protect the Romanov dynasty, were killed, casting a dark and ominous shadow over the Tsarist regimes future. The losses of Russian troops fighting on the Eastern Front was devastating, compelling a retreating General Denkin from Galicia to write: "The German heavy artillery swept away whole lines of trenches, and their defenders with them. We hardly replied. There was nothing with which we could reply. Our regiments, although completely exhausted, were beating off one attack after another by bayonet .... Blood flowed unendingly, the ranks became thinner and thinner and thinner. The number of graves multiplied. Total losses for the spring and summer of 1915 amounted to 1,400,000 killed or wounded, while 976,000 had been taken prisoner." The fall of Warsaw and the humiliating retreat of the decimated Russian army only further fueled the discontent at home and Nicholas only compounded the problem further by dismissing the much respected and more experienced Nikolai Nikolevich as Commander in Chief and assuming that role himself. The hubris of this deadly move made him directly responsible for all further losses in the war, took him to the front and away from his own government, leaving his wife Alexandra to represent the Tsarist regime. Alexandra, in an attempt to save her ailing son, had made a fiercely loyal friendship with the "mad monk" Grigori Rasputin who was not at all liked by the common people and feared even more. This coupled with Alexandra's German background and the wild rumors of an illicit affair with Rasputin generated accusations of treason for the Tsar's wife and the damage Rasputin had done in is ill advisement of war to Nicholas only brought about his own murder by a group of nobles led by Prince Yusupov in response to Nicholas failure to act more judiciously. The cost of war and the increasing hardship of the Russian people triggered off a series of riots and rebellions while Nicholas stayed entrenched in his military campaign leaving the inadequate Alexandria to govern a discontented people. To even further mire himself in his own hubris, the Tsar who had foolishly listened to the bad advise of inept counselors also had a tendency to ignore the advice of competent allies, including that of British Ambassador Sir George Buchanan, who warned Nicholas II that constitutional reforms were necessary to stave off impending revolution. With his own government left for the prey of political intrigue and insurrections, the Russian Empire was on the verge of a complete and total collapse. The farmers of the land had been conscripted to fight the imprudent World War I and food prices kept rising as the price of eggs had risen to four times the cost they were in 1914 and butter five times the amount. The severe winters Russia was prone to having crippled the railways and delivered the Tsarist regime its final blow. That combined with the ill conceived notion that prohibition of alcohol would boost patriotism only helped to diminish the necessary income to the governments treasury hindering any needed funding of the war effort and leaving no room for any needed social policies. On February 23rd of 1917, the severe winter and increasing food shortages led to open pillaging by the people of the shops and bakery's in Petrograd. This led to the police shooting pillagers from the rooftops and that was followed by an enraged populace rioting in the streets carrying the red banners of a would be communist nation, chanting disparaging remarks about Alexandria and her husband. The end of this "February Revolution" brought about Nicholas' II abdication of the throne and while he tried to pass the throne to brother the Grand Duke Micheal, the provisional government rejected this manifesto, Micheal declined the throne until the people could vote for a continuance of Monarch rule. These series of events brought Lenin back from exile and he quickly assumed leadership of the Bolsheviks urging them to completely reject the provisional government. This was a crafty move by Lenin as the people were bound to find disillusion in the provisional government and by opposing them the Bolsheviks accepted no responsibility for those failures. While his artfulness was clearly evident, these were desperate times for the Russian people and much intrigue and chaos followed even forcing Lenin to flee, once again, to Finland until the Bolsheviks could secure the support of the hungry peasants. A botched coup attempt by General Komilov, rallied the masses to the side of the Bolsheviks and Lenin, ever the opportunist returned just in time for the October Revolution where he declared; "All power to the Soviets!" and commanded the provisional government be overthrown and on the night of October 7th, Lenin and his Bolsheviks stormed the Winter Palace and ushered in the age of Soviet rule. Nicholas and his family were imprisoned and while the former Czar clung to the belief that he would be rescued by loyalist's to the throne, on the night of July 16th he and his family were brought down into the basement of the two story house where they were imprisoned and told they had been sentenced to death by Ural Soviets of Workers Deputies. Nicholas responded with a stunned; "What? What?" Then turned to his family as the order to shoot them was repeated by a Bolshevik officer Yakov Yurovsky and in resignation, the defeated Monarch Nicholas II turned to the anxious soldiers and reportedly, quoting Jesus, told them to "do what you must" and Nicholas was the first to die, followed by the rest of his family from multiple gun shot wounds and bayonet stabbings. It was in that final moment that Nicholas II, like all tragic heroes come to understand, realized his own hubris and died a martyr deaths for his beloved Russia. In 1981 The Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia declared he and his family a martyred saints and in the year 2000 The Russian Orthodox Church recognized the Romanov family as saints as well. This is the story of a would be Monarch who found himself thrust upon the throne before he was ready to rule and who committed mistake after mistake after mistake until there was nothing left of the time honored and sacred notion that the Tsar and the Russian people were one. This is the story of the crafty and opportunistic Vladimir I. Lenin who supplanted Nicholas II to rule himself with an iron fist under the banner of communism and this is the story of the Russian people who have been so celebrated by her Russian authors as a people who love to suffer. This is the story of royalty, revolution and Russian revelations that all led to the ten days that shook the world.


What big event happened in 2004?

January 1 - Pervez Musharraf wins a vote of confidence from an electoral college consisting of Parliament and the provincial assemblies, confirming him as President of Pakistan and de facto dictator until 2007.January 3 - Flash Airlines Flight 604 crashes into the Red Sea off the coast of Egypt, killing all 148 aboard.January 4 Mikhail Saakashvili wins the presidential elections in Georgia.NASA's MER-A (Spirit) lands on Mars at 04:35 UTC.January 8 - Queen Elizabeth II christens the RMS Queen Mary 2 cruise liner, the largest passenger ship afloat. The ship sets sail on her maiden voyage four days later.January 13 - Serial killer Harold Shipman is found hanged in his cell at Wakefield Prison, four years after being convicted of murdering 15 patients in Cheshire, England.January 24 - NASA's MER-B (Opportunity) lands on Mars at 05:05 UTC.January 26 - A whale explodes in Tainan City, Taiwan, while being transported through the town to a university for a necropsy.[1]January 28 - The findings of the Hutton Inquiry are published in London. The British Government is found not to have falsified information in the "sexed up dossier." The report criticizes the BBC's role in the death of David Kelly, a weapons expert on Iraq.FebruaryFebruary 1 A hajj stampede in Mina, Saudi Arabia, kills 251 pilgrims.The New England Patriots win Super Bowl XXXVIII.February 2 - An 11-story apartment building collapses in Konya, Turkey, killing more than 90 residents.February 3 The CIA admits that there was no imminent threat from weapons of mass destruction before the 2003 invasion of Iraq.Jóannes Eidesgaard becomes prime minister of the Faroe Islands.February 6 - A suicide bomber kills 41 people on a metro car in Moscow.February 7 - Several leaders of Abnaa el-Balad are arrested in Israel.February 10 At least 50 people are killed in a car bomb attack on a police recruitment centre south of Baghdad.The French National Assembly votes to pass a law banning religious items and clothing from schools.February 12 - San Francisco, California begins issuing marriage licenses to same-sex couples in an act of civil disobedience.February 13 Athens gets hit by a major blizzard which blankets the entire city for days, causing widespread havoc.Scientists in South Korea announce the cloning of 30 human embryos.February 14 Riots break out between New South Wales Police and Aboriginal residents of Redfern, New South Wales, a suburb of Sydney, Australia.The roof of the Transvaal water park in Moscow collapses, killing 25 and injuring more than 100.February 17-February 20 - A nor'easter blizzard devastates Atlantic Canada, dumping more than 37.4 in. (95 cm.) on some areas.February 18 - A train carrying a convoy of petrol, fertiliser, and sulphur derails and explodes in Iran, killing 320 people.February 20 - Conservatives win a majority in the Iranian parliament election.February 24 - A 6.5 Richter scale earthquake in Northern Morocco hits in the Rif mountains near the city of Al Hoceima, killing 400. Ait Kamara is destroyed; 517 are killed.February 26 The United States lifts a 23-year travel ban against Libya.Macedonian President Boris Trajkovski is killed in a plane crash near Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina.February 27 - 2004 SuperFerry 14 bombing: The Abu Sayyaf guerrilla group is blamed for the deadliest terrorist attack at sea in world history, which kills 116 in the Philippines.February 28 - Over 1 million Taiwanese participating in the 228 Hand-in-Hand Rally form a 500-kilometre (310 mi) long human chain to commemorate the 228 Incident in 1947.February 29 - 2004 Haiti rebellion: Jean-Bertrand Aristide resigns as president of Haiti. The chief justice of the Haitian Supreme Court, Boniface Alexandre, is sworn in as interim president.MarchCyclone Gafilo March 2 - NASA announces that the Mars rover MER-B (Opportunity) has confirmed that its landing area was once drenched in water.March 10 - Five British men are released from detention at Camp Delta, Guantanamo Bay. After they land at RAF Brize Norton, 4 of them are immediately arrested for questioning.March 11 - Terrorists execute simultaneous attacks, with bombs in 4 rush-hour trains in Madrid, killing 191 people.March 12 - Following the terrorist attacks in Madrid the previous day, millions of protesters against terrorism take to the streets of Spanish cities.March 14 Two suicide bombers kill 11 Israeli civilians in Ashdod, Israel.Spanish legislative election, 2004: The incumbent government led by José María Aznar is defeated by the Socialist José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero.Russian presidential election, 2004: Vladimir Putin easily wins a second term.March 15 - The new Spanish Government announces that it will withdraw Spain's 1,300 troops in Iraq.March 17 - A pogrom-like organized violence breaks out over 2 days in Kosovo; 19 people are killed, 8000 Serbian homes burned, schools and businesses vandalized, and over 300 Orthodox monasteries and churches burned and destroyed.March 19 - The United Nations launches a political corruption investigation due to the scandal over its Iraqi Oil for Food program.March 20 - President Chen Shui-bian wins the Taiwanese presidential election by 0.2% of the vote. The day before, he and Vice President Annette Lu were shot. Lien Chan refuses to concede and demands a recount. A controversial peace referendum opposed by the People's Republic of China is invalidated.March 21 - Salvadoran presidential election, 2004: Antonio Saca is elected President of El Salvador.March 22 - Palestinians protest in the streets after an Israeli helicopter gunship fires a missile at the entourage of Sheikh Ahmed Yassin in Gaza City, killing him and 7 others.March 25 - British prime minister Tony Blair visits Libyan leader Colonel Muammar al-Gaddafi, in return for the dismantling of Libya's Weapons of mass destruction programme in December 2003 (the first time a major western leader had visited the nation in several decades).March 28 In France, the government of prime minister Jean-Pierre Raffarin suffers a stunning and unprecedented defeat in regional elections.The first ever reported South Atlantic hurricane makes landfall in South Brazil in the state of Santa Catarina - the hurricane is dubbed Hurricane Catarina.March 29 The Republic of Ireland bans smoking in all enclosed work places, including restaurants, pubs and bars.The largest expansion of NATO to date takes place, allowing Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia into the organization.March 31 - Four American private military contractors working for Blackwater USA are killed, and their bodies mutilated, after being ambushed in Fallujah, Iraq.AprilApril 5 - Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom begins a state visit to France to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the Entente Cordiale.April 8 - Darfur conflict: The Humanitarian Ceasefire Agreement is signed by the Sudanese government and 2 rebel groups.April 17 - Israeli helicopters fire missiles at a convoy of vehicles in the Gaza Strip, killing the Gaza leader of Hamas, Abdel Aziz al-Rantissi.April 20 - In Iraq, 12 mortars are fired on Abu Ghraib Prison by insurgents; 22 detainees are killed and 92 wounded. [1]April 21 - Mordechai Vanunu, who revealed an Israeli nuclear weapons program in the 1980s, is released from prison in Israel after serving 18 years for treason.April 22 Ryongchon disaster: Two trains carrying explosives and fuel collide in Ryongchon, North Korea, killing 161 people, injuring 1,300 and destroying thousands of homes.The last coal mine in France closes, ending nearly 300 years of coal mining.April 24 - Referendums on the Annan Plan for Cyprus, which proposes to re-unite the island, take place in both the Greek-controlled and the Turkish-controlled parts. Although the Turkish Cypriots vote in favour, the Greek Cypriots reject the proposal.April 28 - Abu Ghraib prisoner abuse in Iraq is revealed on the television show 60 Minutes II.April 29 - The last Oldsmobile rolls off of the assembly line.MayEuropean Union flag May 1 - The largest expansion to date of the European Union takes place, extending the Union by 10 member-states: Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Slovenia, Hungary, Malta and Cyprus.May 4 - the Toronto Maple Leafs played their last NHL playoff game.May 6 - The series finale of Friends airs on NBC.May 8 - Would-be "Saudi Princess" "Antoinette Millard" surfaces in New York City, claiming that muggers had stolen jewels worth of $262,000 from her (she later proves to be an impostor).May 9 - Chechen president Akhmad Kadyrov is killed by a landmine placed under a VIP stage during a World War II memorial parade in Grozny.May 10 - Philippine general election, 2004: Incumbent president Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo is elected for a 6-year term.May 12 - An American civilian contractor in Iraq, Nick Berg, is shown being decapitated by a group allegedly linked to al-Qaida on a web-distributed video.May 14 - Frederik, Crown Prince of Denmark, marries Australian Mary Donaldson in Copenhagen.May 15 - South Africa is awarded the 2010 FIFA World Cup.May 16 - A coup d'état in Chad against President Idriss Déby fails.May 17 Ezzedine Salim, holder of the rotating leadership of the Iraq Interim Governing Council, is killed in a bomb blast in Baghdad.Massachusetts legalizes same-sex marriage, in compliance with a ruling from the state's Supreme Judicial Court (Goodridge v. Department of Public Health).May 19 - Jeremy Sivits pleads guilty in a court-martial in connection with alleged abuse of Iraqi prisoners at Abu Ghraib prison in Baghdad.May 22 - Dr. Manmohan Singh assumes office as the 17th and first Sikh Prime Minister of the Republic Of India.May 23 A section of the ceiling in Terminal 2E at Paris's Charles de Gaulle International Airport collapses, claiming at least 6 lives.Japanese prime minister Junichiro Koizumi visits North Korea, to secure the release of the families of the 9 abducted Japanese citizens returned earlier.May 24 - North Korea bans mobile phones (see Communications in North Korea).May 26 Terry Nichols is convicted by an Oklahoma state court on murder charges stemming from the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing.F.C. Porto wins the European Champion Clubs Cup, defeating A.S. Monaco 3-0.May 29 - The National World War II Memorial is dedicated in Washington, DC.May 30 - Thousands of people in Hong Kong take to the streets to commemorate the 15th anniversary of the Tiananmen Square massacre.JuneJune 1 Sasebo slashing: Satomi Mitarai, a 12-year-old Japanese schoolgirl attending Okubo Elementary School in Sasebo, Japan, is murdered. Her killer is an 11-year-old classmate identified by Japanese authorities as "Girl A".Salvadoran presidential election, 2004: Antonio Saca is inaugurated as the President of El SalvadorJune 3 All outgoing flights from the UK are temporarily grounded following an air traffic control computer failure. BBC NEWSCentral Intelligence Agency director George Tenet tenders his resignation, citing "personal reasons". John E. McLaughlin, CIA Deputy Director, becomes the acting Director until a permanent Director is chosen and confirmed by Congress.June 4 - Marvin Heemeyer destroys many local buildings with a home-made tank in Granby, Colorado.June 8 The first transit of Venus since 1882 occurs; the next one will occur in 2012.The 30th G8 summit takes place over the next 2 days on Sea Island, in Georgia, USA.The pickled heart of Louis XVII of France is buried in the royal crypt at Saint-Denis.June 11 - Terry Nichols is spared the death penalty by an Oklahoma state court on murder charges stemming from the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing. The decision comes on the third anniversary of the execution of his co-defendant, Timothy McVeigh, in Terre Haute, Indiana.June 12 - A 1.3 kg chondrite type meteorite strikes a house in Ellerslie, New Zealand, causing serious damage but no injuries.June 16 - The National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States (or "9/11 Commission") issues an initial report of its findings.June 21 - In Mojave, California, SpaceShipOne becomes the first privately funded spaceplane to achieve spaceflight.June 28-June 29 - The 2004 Istanbul Summit is held.June 28 Union Pacific and Burlington Northern Santa Fe trains collide in a rural area outside of San Antonio, Texas; 40 cars are derailed, including one chlorine car. Three people die, another 50 people are hospitalized because of exposure to the gas.The U.S.-led coalition occupying Iraq transfers sovereignty to an Iraqi Interim Government.Canadian federal election, 2004: The Liberal Party, led by Paul Martin, is reduced to a minority government, after holding a majority since November 1993.June 30 - Preliminary hearings begin in Iraq in the trial of former president Saddam Hussein, for war crimes and crimes against humanity.JulyJuly 1 The Cassini-Huygens spacecraft arrives at Saturn.The Vatican gains full membership rights in the United Nations except voting.July 4 - Groundbreaking for the Freedom Tower begins at Ground Zero in New York City.July 4 - Greece wins UEFA Euro 2004 at Estádio da Luz in Portugal.July 22 - The Old Bridge of Mostar in Bosnia and Herzegovina is reconstructed and reopened after being destroyed by Bosnian Croat forces on November 9, 1993.July 25 Over 100,000 opponents of Israel's unilateral disengagement plan of 2004 participate in a human chain from Gush Katif, to the Western Wall, Jerusalem (90 kilometers).Lance Armstrong of Austin, Texas wins an unprecedented 6th consecutive Tour de France cycling title.AugustAugust 1 A supermarket fire in Asunción, Paraguay, kills about 400 and leaves over 100 missing.A bomb attack occurs in front of Prague's Casino Royal.August 2 - Monday demonstrations against social cutbacks began in Germany.August 3 The Statue of Liberty reopens after security improvements.NASA's MESSENGER is launched (it will be captured into Mercury's orbit on March 18, 2011).August 6 - A United Nations report blaming the government of Sudan for crimes against humanity in Darfur is released.August 9 - At the Mihama Nuclear Power Plant, a pipe leaking hot water and steam kills 5 and injures 6 others, in the 2nd worst nuclear disaster in Japan.August 12 Singapore's prime minister Goh Chok Tong hands over his position to Lee Hsien Loong.New Jersey Governor James McGreevey announces that he is "a gay American" and will resign effective November 15, 2004.August 13-August 29 - The 2004 Summer Olympics are held in Athens.The Olympic Flame during the Opening Ceremony of the 2004 Summer Olympics, held in Athens. August 13 - Hurricane Charley kills 27 people in Florida, after killing 4 in Cuba and 1 in Jamaica. Charley makes landfall near Cayo Costa, FL as a Category 4 hurricane. Charley is the most intense hurricane to strike the United States since Hurricane Andrew in 1992.August 16 - Severe flooding occurs in the village of Boscastle in Cornwall.August 18 - In Dublin, Ireland, the Dublin Port Tunnel excavation works are completed and the final tunnel boring machine breakthrough ceremony takes place.August 20 - Elbegdorj Tsakhia, the peaceful democratic revolutionary leader of Mongolia, becomes Prime Minister of Mongolia for the second time.August 21 - A series of blasts rocks an opposition party rally in Dhaka, Bangladesh, killing at least 13 people.August 22 - Armed robbers steal Edvard Munch's The Scream, Madonna, and other paintings from the Munch Museum in Oslo, Norway.August 24 - Two airliners in Russia, carrying a total of 89 passengers, crash within minutes of each other after flying out of Domodedovo International Airport, leaving no survivors. Authorities suspect suicide attacks by rebels from Chechnya to be the cause of the crashes.August 29 - Around 200,000 protesters demonstrate in New York City against U.S. President George W. Bush and his government, ahead of the 2004 Republican National Convention.August 30-September 2 - U.S. President George W. Bush and Vice President Dick Cheney are renominated at the Republican National Convention in New York City.August 31 Two suicide attacks on buses in Beer Sheva, Israel, kill at least 16 people and injure at least 60. Hamas claims responsibility for the attacks.A woman commits a suicide attack near a subway station in northern Moscow, Russia, killing at least 10 people and injuring at least 50. Authorities hold Chechen rebels responsible.SeptemberSeptember - The Great Laxey Mine Railway of the Isle of Man is re-opened.September 1 - Chechen terrorists take between 1,000 and 1,500 people hostage, mostly children, in a school in the Beslan school hostage crisis. The hostage-takers demand the release of Chechen rebels imprisoned in neighbouring Ingushetia and the independence of Chechnya from Russia.September 2 The United Nations Security Council adopts Resolution 1559, calling for the removal of all foreign troops from Lebanon. This measure is largely aimed at Syrian troops.Hurricane Ivan forms.September 3 Russian forces end the siege at a school in Beslan, Northern Ossetia. At least 335 people (among which are 32 of the approximately 40 hostage-takers) are killed and at least 700 people injured.Hurricane Frances makes landfall in Florida. After killing 2 people in the Bahamas, Hurricane Frances kills 10 people in Florida, 2 in Georgia, USA and 1 in South Carolina.September 7 - Hurricane Ivan passes directly over Grenada, killing 37 people. It passes over other Caribbean islands over the next 2 days, killing 5 people in Venezuela, 4 in the Dominican Republic, 1 in Tobago and 20 in Jamaica.September 8 - In the "Rathergate" affair, the first Internet posts appear, pointing out that documents claimed by CBS News to be typewritten memos from the early 1970s appear instead to have been produced using modern word processing systems.September 9 A bomb blast outside the Australian embassy in Jakarta, Indonesia, kills 11 and injures up to 100 people.Typhoon Songda hits western Japan, killing 45 and injuring another 1,352.September 13 - The U.S. Assault Weapons Ban expires.September 15 Davíð Oddsson, Prime Minister of Iceland, steps down after serving as prime minister since April 30, 1991. Oddson trades posts with his foreign minister Halldór Ásgrímsson, who then becomes Prime Minister.Security at the Palace of Westminster is compromised, when the House of Commons is stormed by a small group of protestors during a debate about fox hunting."Girl A", who committed the Sasebo slashing, is sentenced to be institutionalized.September 16 - Hurricane Ivan strikes Gulf Shores, Alabama, as a Category 3 storm, killing 25 in Alabama and Florida, becoming the 3rd costliest hurricane in American history (currently the 4th following the destruction of 2005's Hurricane Katrina).September 17 Hurricane Jeanne causes mudslides in Haiti, killing 3006.The 2004 Summer Paralympics commences in Athens, Greece.Mexico and Japan finish 2-year-long negotiations and sign a Free Trade Agreement in Mexico City.September 21 - Construction of the Burj Khalifa begins.September 22 - The TV series Lost airs its pilot.September 23 Mount St. Helens becomes active again.Tropical Storm Ivan, having come around and reformed in the Gulf of Mexico, makes its final landfall near Cameron, Louisiana, to little effect. In total, the storm kills 92 people.September 24 - Major League Baseball announces that the Montreal Expos will move to Washington D.C. in 2005.September 25 Port Adelaide Power wins their first premiership against the Brisbane Lions in the AFL Grand Final.Hurricane Jeanne makes landfall near Port Saint Lucie, Florida, near the location Hurricane Frances hit 2 weeks earlier. Jeanne kills over 3,030, mostly in Haiti.September 29 - In Mojave, California, the first Ansari X-Prize flight takes place of SpaceShipOne, which is competing with a number of spacecraft (including Canada's Da Vinci Project, claimed to be its closest rival) and goes on to win the prize on October 4.OctoberOctober 4 - Two car bombs kill at least 16 people and injure dozens more in Baghdad.October 5 A fire breaks out on the Canadian submarine HMCS Chicoutimi, leaving it stranded without power in the North Atlantic ocean, off the north coast of Ireland; 1 crewmember is killed.West Sulawesi officially becomes a province in Indonesia after the expansion of South Sulawesi.October 8 - Suicide bombers detonate 2 bombs at the Red Sea resort of Taba, Egypt, killing 34 people, mainly Israeli tourists and Egyptian workers.October 9 - Direct elections for president are held for the first time in Afghanistan. Interim president Hamid Karzai is eventually declared the winner.October 10 - Abdullahi Yusuf is chosen as the new transitional president of Somalia.October 14 - Prince Norodom Sihamoni is chosen as the new king of Cambodia.October 16 The New York Yankees defeat the Boston Red Sox 19-8 in Game 3 of Major League Baseball's American League Championship Series. The game, which pushes the Yankees to a 3 games to 0 series lead, sets a record for longest 9 inning baseball game.Arsenal lose for the first time in 49 league games, a national record, going down 2-0 to Manchester United at Old Trafford.October 17 - A referendum in Belarus approves the lifting of constitutional term limits for the presidency.October 19 General Khin Nyunt is replaced by Lieutenant-General Soe Win as Prime Minister of Myanmar.A team of explorers reaches the bottom of the world's deepest cave, located in Krubera. The depth reached is 2,080 meters (6,824 feet), setting a world record. (National Geographic)October 20 The Ubuntu operating system is first released.Corporate Airlines Flight 5966 crashes in Missouri, killing 13 people and injuring 2.Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono becomes the first directly elected President of Indonesia.October 21 The Ministry of Defence approves the deployment of the Black Watch regiment of the British Army to Baghdad, Iraq, after a request for assistance by the U.S. government.Typhoon Tokage kill 98, injured 552 in western Japan.October 23 - A Magnitude 6.7 earthquake and aftershocks of similar scale occur in the Tokamachi area. A huge landslide occurs on the outskirts of Nagaoka. According to Japanese officials, 68 people are killed, 4,085 are injured, and 103,000 are rendered homeless.October 24 Brazil successfully launches its first rocket into space.Michael Schumacher wins his 7th Formula One World Drivers Championship (5th consecutive), making him the most successful driver in the history of Formula One.October 25 - Martin Luther King, Jr. and Coretta Scott King receive the Congressional Gold Medal.October 26 - The Cassini probe passes within 1,200 km of Titan.October 27 The Boston Red Sox win the World Series for the first time since 1918.Details of the discovery of a new, recent species of fossil hominid, Homo floresiensis, from the island of Flores, Indonesia, are published.October 29 - European heads of state sign in Rome the Treaty and Final Act, establishing the first European Constitution.October 30 - A 163-metre-high radio mast in Peterborough, UK collapses at a fire.October 31 - Leftist candidate Tabaré Vázquez is elected President of Uruguay.NovemberNovember 2 Eleven American states ban gay marriage.Dutch film maker Theo van Gogh is assassinated in Amsterdam, Netherlands by Mohammed Bouyeri.November 6 The Ufton Nervet rail crash in Berkshire, England kills 7 people.In Côte d'Ivoire, National Army bombings kill 9 people, including French UN soldiers. French UN forces retaliate by destroying the National Army's air force.November 7 - U.S. forces launch a major assault on the Iraqi town of Fallujah, in an effort to rid the area of insurgents before the Iraqi elections in January.November 8 - The Irish High Court rules that Katherine Zappone and Ann Louise Gilligan can sue the Revenue Commissioner to have their Vancouver, British Columbia Same-sex marriage recognized for tax purposes.November 13 - After six days of intense battles, the Iraqi town of Fallujah is fully occupied by U.S. forces.November 14 - United States Secretary of State Colin Powell submits his resignation. He is replaced by Condoleezza Rice after her confirmation by the United States Congress.November 16 The European Space Agency probe, Smart 1, passes from Earth orbit into the orbit of the Moon.A train crash near Bundaberg, Queensland, Australia, injures 150 people.The People's Republic of China agrees to invest $20 billion dollars in Argentina, a deal signed days before the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum to be held in Santiago, Chile.NASA's hypersonic Scramjet breaks a record by reaching a velocity of about 7,000 mph in an unmanned experimental flight. It obtains a speed of Mach 9.6, almost 10 times the speed of sound.November 17-November 21 - The APEC Summit is held in Santiago, Chile.November 19 - The NBA's Indiana Pacers and Detroit Pistons engage in a brawl that involves fans and players. The incident gets (then) Pacer Ron Artest suspended for the remainder of the season.November 21 - Ukrainian presidential election, 2004: Viktor Yanukovych is declared the winner in the final round. International election observers express severe criticism, and large crowds gather in a protest rally in Kiev; 12 days later, the Supreme Court annuls the result, and a new poll is scheduled.November 25 - The Indian political party Congress Jananayaka Peravai merges into the Indian National Congress.November 26 - A group of Iraqi political leaders, primarily from Sunni and Kurdish parties, advocate a 6-month delay in popular elections scheduled for January 2005.November 28 A coal mine explosion in China kills over 150.Ricardo Lagos, President of Chile, promises economic compensation to 28,000 torture victims of Augusto Pinochet's military dictatorship.A male Po'o-uli dies of avian malaria at the Maui Bird Conservation Center in Olinda before it can breed, making the species in all probability extinct.DecemberDecember 3 - The Colombian government extradites Gilberto Rodríguez Orejuela, one of the most powerful drug dealers in the world, arrested in 1995 and 2003, to the United States.December 6 - Terrorists attack the U.S. Consulate in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, killing several people.December 8 - The biggest Chinese PC producer Lenovo announces its plan to purchase IBM's global PC business, making it the third largest world PC maker after Dell and Hewlett-Packard.December 10 - New Zealand bans smoking in all public places, including bars.December 11 - Tests show that Ukrainian opposition presidential candidate Viktor Yushchenko was poisoned with a large dose of dioxin.December 13 - Software giants Oracle Corporation and PeopleSoft agree to merge in a $10.3 billion deal, creating the second largest maker of business applications software.December 14 - The world's tallest bridge, the Millau bridge over the River Tarn in the Massif Central mountains, France, is opened by President Jacques Chirac.December 15 - Albanian terrorists take a bus and its passengers hostage in Athens, Greece and demand 1 million euros in ransom money.December 16 The House of Lords rules that the British Government breaches human rights legislation, by detaining without trial foreign nationals suspected of being terrorists.IT security company Symantec Corp signs a definitive agreement to merge with Veritas Software Corp, valued at $13.5 billion, in an all-stock transaction.The South Korean high-speed rail system, Korea Train Express, opens between Seoul and Busan.December 21 - Iraqi insurgents attack a U.S. military base in the city of Mosul, killing 22 people.December 22 - Armed robbers in Northern Ireland steal over £22 million from the headquarters of the Northern Bank. Unionist politicians and the Police Service of Northern Ireland blame the Provisional Irish Republican Army, and stall the peace process.The tsunami caused by the December 26, 2004 earthquake strikes Ao Nang, Thailand. December 26 One of the worst natural disasters in recorded history hits Southeast Asia, when the strongest earthquake in 40 years hits the entire Indian Ocean region. The massive 9.3 magnitude earthquake, epicentered just off the west coast of the Indonesian island of Sumatra, generates enormous tsunami waves that crash into the coastal areas of a number of nations including Thailand, India, Sri Lanka, the Maldives, Malaysia, Myanmar, Bangladesh, and Indonesia. The official death toll in the affected countries stands at 186,983 while more than 40,000 people are still missing.The re-run of the second round of the Ukrainian presidential election takes place. Opposition candidate Viktor Yushchenko is declared the winner.December 27 - Astrophysicists from the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics in Garching near Munich measure the strongest burst from a magnetar. At 21:30:26 UT the earth is hit by a huge wave front of gamma and X-rays. It is the strongest flux of high-energetic gamma radiation measured so far.December 28 - The Ukrainian transport minister, Heorhiy Kirpa, is found shot dead, in a suspected suicide.December 30 - A fire in a Buenos Aires night club (República Cromagnon) kills 194 people during a rock concert.December 31 Taipei 101, at the time tallest skyscraper in the world, standing at a height of 1,670 feet (509 metres ), officially opens.Simón Trinidad, high-profile FARC leader, is extradited to the United States, following the second extradition of a high drug dealer in a month and in 2004.Ukrainian Prime Minister Viktor Yanukovych resigns.

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