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Five uses of the flux coating coating on the electrode are:

Producing a protective gas around the weld area

Providing fluxing elements and deoxidizers

Creating a solid coating over the weld as it cools

Establishing electrical characteristics

Adding alloying elements.

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Q: What is five functions of the flux coating on an electrode?
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What are the weakness of he checks and balances?

Checks and balance can be in a continual state of flux and change. Longer lasting 'fixes' are better than short term quick fixes that need constant upkeep.

What book did Montesquieu write?

Les causes de l'écho (The Causes of an Echo)Les glandes rénales (The Renal Glands)La cause de la pesanteur des corps (The Cause of Gravity of Bodies)La damnation éternelle des païens (The Eternal Damnation of the Pagans, 1711)Système des Idées (System of Ideas, 1716)Lettres persanes (Persian Letters, 1721)Le Temple de Gnide (The Temple of Gnide, a novel; 1724)Histoire véritable d'Arsace et Isménie ((The True History of) Arsace and Isménie, a novel; 1730)Considérations sur les causes de la grandeur des Romains et de leur décadence (Considerations on the Causes of the Grandeur and Decadence of the Romans, 1734)De l'esprit des lois ((On) The Spirit of the Laws, 1748)La défense de «L'Esprit des lois» (In Defence of "The Spirit of the Laws", 1750)Pensées suivies de Spicilège (Thoughts after Spicilège)Essai sur le goût (1757)Le flux et le reflux de la merMémoires sur la fièvre intermittenteMémoires sur l'échoLes maladies des glandes rénalesLa pesanteur des corpsLe mouvement relatifLe SpicilègePensées"

Who sold the first slaves to America?

The Europeans. The Portuguese and the English brought the most slaves over from Africa but slaves in smaller numbers were also taken to the Americas by the Spanish, French, Dutch and Danes. The slave trade was usually in the hands of independent traders from those countries who sold the slaves in America (the continent) and returned to Europe with high value commodities such as cotton, sugar and cocoa. This way they profited from the journey to America and the journey back home.Who Brought the Slavesto America?--by Walter White--The story of the slaves in America begins with Christopher Columbus. His voyage to America was not financed by QueenIsabella, but by Luis de Santangelo, who advanced the sum of 17,000 ducats (about 5,000 pounds-today equal to 50,000 pounds) tofinance the voyage, which began on August 3,1492.Columbus was accompanied by five 'maranos' (Jews who had foresworn their religion and supposedly became Catholics),Luis de Torres, interpreter, Marco, the surgeon, Bemal, the physician, Alonzo de la Calle and Gabriel Sanchez. (Ref. The InternationalJew by Henry Ford)Gabriel Sanchez, abetted by the other four Jews, sold Columbus on the idea of capturing 500 Indians and selling them asslaves in Seville, Spain, which was done. Columbus did not receive any of the money from the sale of the slaves, but he became thevictim of a conspiracy fostered by Bemal, the ship's doctor. He, Columbus, suffered injustice and imprisonment as his reward.Betrayed by the five maranos (Jews) whom he had trusted and helped. This, ironically, was the beginning of slavery in the Americas.(Adventures of an African Slaver by Malcolm Cowley, 1928, p.11)The Jews were expelled from Spain on August 2, 1492, and from Portugal in 1497. Many of these Jews emigrated toHolland, where they set up the Dutch West Indies Company to exploit the new world.In 1654, the first Jew, Jacob Barsimson, emigrated from Holland to New Amsterdam (New York) and in the next decademany more followed him, settling along the East Coast, principally in New Amsterdam and Newport, Rhode Island. They wereprevented by ordinances issued by Governor Peter Stuyvesant from engaging in the domestic economy, so they quickly discoveredthat the territory inhabited by the Indians would be a fertile field. There were no laws preventing the Jews from trading with theIndians.The first Jew to begin trading with the Indians was Hayman Levy, who imported cheap glass beads, textiles, earrings,armbands and other cheap adornments from Holland which were traded for valuable fur pelts. Hayman Levy was soon joined by JewsNicholas Lowe and Joseph Simon. Lowe conceived the idea of trading rum and whiskey to the Indians and set up a distillery inNewport, where these two liquors were produced. Within a short time there were 22 distilleries in Newport, all of them owned byJews, manufacturing and distributing 'firewater.' The story of the debauching of the Indians with its resultant massacres of the earlysettlers, is a dramatic story in itself.It is essential to comprehend the seaport of Newport. It is important in order to recognize the Jewish share in the Slave commerce.There was a period when it was commonly referred to as 'The Jewish Newport-World center of Slave Commerce.' All together, at thistime, there were in North America six Jewish communities: Newport, Charleston, New York, Philadelphia, Richmond, and Savanuah.There were also many other Jews, scattered over the entire East Coast. Although New York held first place in the settlers of Jews inNorth America, Newport held second place. New York was also the main source of Kosher meat, supplying the North Americansettlements, then the West Indies and also South America. Now Newport took over! Newport also became the great trade harbour ofthe East Coast of North America. There, vessels from other ports met, to exchange commodities. Newport, as previously mentioned,represented the foremost place in the commerce of rum, whiskey, and liquor dealings. And to conclude, it finally became the MainCenter of Slave dealings. It was from this port that the ships left on their way across the ocean, to gather their black human cargo andthen derive great sums of money in exchange for them.An authentic, contemporary report, based on authority, indicates that of 128 Slave ships, for instance, unloaded inCharleston, within one year, their "Cargo," 120 of these were undersigned by Jews from Newport and Charleston by their own name.About the rest of them, one can surmise, although they were entered as Boston (1), Norfolk (2), and Baltimore (4), their real ownerswere similarly the Jewish slave dealers from Newport and Charleston.One is able to assess the Jewish share in the entire dealings of the Newport, if one considers the undertaking of a lone Jew,the Portuguese, Aaron Lopez, who plays an important part in the over-all story of the Jews and Slavery.Concerning the entire commerce of the Colonies, and the later State of Rhode Island, (which included Newport) bills oflading, concessions, receipts, and port clearances carried the signature name of the Jew Aaron Lopez. This all took place during theyears 1726 to 1774. He had therefore more than 50% of all dealings under his personal control for almost fifty years. Aside from thatthere were other ships which he owned, but sailed under other names.In the year 1749, the first Masonic Lodge was established. Ninety percent of the members of this first lodge, fourteen all told,were Jews. And one knows that only so-called"'prominent" individuals were accepted. Twenty years later, the second Masonic Lodge,"King David," was established. It is a fact that all of these members were Jews.In the meantime, the Jewish influence in Newport had reached such proportions that President George Washington decided topay them a visit. Upon his appearance, both of the Masonic Lodges sent an emissary--a Jew named Moses Seixas--to approach thePresident with a petition, in which the Jews of Newport stated: "If you will permit the children of Abraham to approach you with arequest, to tell you that we honor you, and feel an alliance...... and then: "Until the present time the valuable rights of a free citizenhave been withheld. However, now we see a new government coming into being based on the Majesty of the people, a government,not sanctioning any bigotry nor persecution of the Jew, rather, to concede the freedom of thought, which each shares, whatever Nationor Language, as a part of the great Government machine."It is necessary at this point to consider the disclosures as to who in reality obtained this legendary freedom in America at thefounding of the Union. To be sure, the province became independent and severed from the English Jurisdiction. However, we can seefrom the petition which Moses Seixas offered President Washington in the name of the Jews of Newport, that it was not in reality thistype of freedom which they had in mind. They were merely concerned about themselves, and their "own civil rights," which had beenwithheld. Therefore, following the Revolutionary War, the Jews were accorded equal rights, and freed of all restrictions! And theNegroes? The Revolutioniry War not withstanding, they remained Slaves! In the year 1750, one sixth of the population in New Yorkwas Negroid, and proportionately in the Southern parts of the Country, they outnumbered the others, but the proclamation of Freedomdid not touch them. More of this later.Let us scrutinize at close range this dismal handwork of the Jews which gave them influence and power, so we may comprehend theSlave Trade; for there has been so much written since that time by the zealous Jewish writers, that at the present, long since removed,it might appear natural, for the time element has a tendency to make things nebulous.Let us follow the journey of one ship, owned by a slave dealer, Aaron Lopez, which had made many trips to the Africancoast.For instance, in the month of May, 1752, the ship "Abigail" was equipped with about 9,000 gallons of rum, a great supply ofiron foot and hand restraints, pistols, powder, sabres, and a lot of worthless tin ornaments, and under the command of the JewishCaptain Freedman, sailed off for Africa. There were but two Mates and six sailors comprising the crew. Three and one half monthslater they landed on the African Coast. Meantime, there had been constructed an African Agency, by the Jewish slave dealers, whohad corralled them, and prepared them for sale. This organization reaching deep into Africa, had many ramifications, including theheads of groups, villages, etc. This method to win over these leaders for the Jewish slave trade, was similar to' that which the Jews hademployed with the Indians.At first, they presented them with rum, and soon found themselves in an alcoholic delirium. When the gold dust, and ivorysupply was exhausted, they were induced to sell their descendants. At first their wives, and then their youths. Then they began warfareamong each other, plotted and developed mostly by the Jews, and if they captured prisoners, these, too, were exchanged for rum,ammunitions and weapons to the Jews', using them for further campaigns to capture more Negroes. The captured Blacks were linkedtwo by two and driven through the medieval forests to the coast. These painful treks required weeks, and some of them frequentlybecame ill, and felled by exhaustion, and many unable to rise even though the bull whip was applied as an encourager. They were leftto die and were devoured by wild beasts. It was not unusual to see the bones of the dead laying in the tropical sun, a sad and gruesomereminder to those who would later on tread this path.It has been calculated that for each Negro who withstood the rigors of this wandering, there still had to be the long voyageacross the ocean, before they reached American soil, nine out of ten died! And when one considers that there was a yearly exodus ofONE MILLION black slaves, then, and only then, can one assess the tremendous and extensive exodus of the African people. Atpresent Africa is thinly populated, not alone due to the 1,000,000 literally dragged out of huts, but due to the five to nine million whonever reached their destination. Once they reached the coast, the black slaves were driven together, and restraints were applied to holdthem until the next transport ship docked. The agents--many of them Jews--who represented the Chief, then began the deal with theCaptain. Each Negro was personally presented to him. But the captains had learned to become suspicious. The Black one must movehis fingers, arms, legs, and the entire body to insure that there were not any fractures. Even the teeth were examined. If a tooth waslacking, it lowered the price. Most of the Jew agents knew how to treat sick Negroes with chemicals in order to sell them as sound.Each Negro was valued at about 100 gallons of rum, 100 pounds of gun Oowder, or in cash between 18 to 20 dollars. The notations ofa captain inform us that on September 5, 1763, one Negro brought as much as 200 gallons of rum, due to the bidding among theagents, raising the price.Women under 25 years, pregnant or not, resulted in the same measure, if they were well and comely. Any over 25 years lost25%.And here it should be stated that those Negroes, purchased free at the African Coast for 20 to 40 dollars, were then resold bythe same slave dealers in America for two thousand dollars.This gives one an idea how the Jews managed to acquire tremendous fortunes. Following the bargaining, Captain Freedmanpaid the bill, either in merchandise or cash. He also recalled some advice which his Jewish employers gave him as he left Newport forAfrica: "Pour as much water into the rum as you possibly can." In this manner the Negro chiefs were cheated two times by theNewport Jews!The next step was to shave the hair from the head of the acquired slaves. Then they were bound and branded with a hot iron,either on the back, or the hip, identifying them with their owners. Now the Negro slave was indeed the property of the Jewishpurchaser. If he fled he could be identified. Following this procedure, there was a farewell celebration. There were instances whenentire families were brought out of the interior, to the coast, and then separated through the buyer--the father going with one ship, thesons and daughters into another. These "farewell" celebrations were usually packed with emotion, tears, drama and sadness. Therewas little joy, if ever.The following day the transport began from land to ship. It was managed by taking four to six Negroes at one time inrowboats to the ship. Of course the slave dealers were aware of how the Negro loved his homeland above all else, and could only beinduced by great force to leave it. So, some of the Negroes would leap into the water. But here the overseers were prepared with sharpdogs and retrieved the fleeing men. Other Negroes preferred drowning. What came aboard alive was immediately undressed. Herewas another opportunity to jump overboard and reach land and freedom. But the slave dealers were pitiless and ruthless; they weremerely concerned to get their Black cargo to America with the least loss. Therefore, an escapee, recaptured, had both of his legs cutoff before the eyes of the remaining Negroes in order to restore "Order."On board the ship the Negroes were separated into three groups. The men were placed in one part of the ship. The womeninto another, whereby the lusty Captain arranged it so that the youngest, mostly comely Negro women were accessible to him.The children remained on deck, covered with a cloth in bad weather. In this fashion the slave ship proceeded on its journey toAmerica. In the main, the ships were too small, and not at all suitable to transport people. They were barely equipped to transportanimals, which the Negroes were likened to. In one space, one meter high (39 inches) these unfortunate creatures were placed into ahorizontal position, pressed close together. Mostly they were chained together. In this position they had to remain for three months,until the end of the voyage. Rarely was there a captain who sympathized with them or evidenced any feelings whatever for thesepitiable creatures. Occasionally they would be taken in groups to the deck for fresh air, shackled in irons.Somehow, these Negroes were expendable and endured much. On occasion, one of them became insane, killing the other onepressed closely to him. They also had their fingernails closely cut so they could not tear at each other's flesh. The most horrible battlescame about among the men, to acquire a centimeter or two for a comfortable position. It was then that the slave overseer stepped inwith his bullwhip. The unimaginable, horrible, human excrement in which these slaves had to endure these trips is impossible todescribe.In the women's quarters the same conditions prevailed. Women gave birth to children lying pressed closely together. Theyounger Negro women were constantly raped by the captain and the crew resulting, thereby, a new type of Mulatto as they came toAmerica.In Virginia, or in any of the other Southern port cities, the slaves were transferred to the land and immediately sold. A regularauction would take place, following the method of purchase in Africa. The highest bidder obtained the "Ware." In many cases--due tothe indescribable filth--some of the Blacks became ill during the sea voyage from Africa to America. They became unemployable. Insuch cases the captain accepted any price. It was rare to dispose of them for no one wanted to purchase a sick Negro. Therefore, it isnot surprising that the Jewish, unethical doctor senses a new form of revenue. They purchased the sick Negro for a small sum, thentreated him, and sold him for a large sum. On occasion, the captain would be left with a few Negroes for whom he did not find abuyer. In that case he returned to Newport and sold them to the Jews for cheap domestic help. In other cases, the Jew owner of theships took them over. This is why the city of Newport and its surroundings had 4,697 black slaves in the year 1756.Slavery did not extend to the North. Moreover, in many of the North American Colonies, slavery was strictly forbidden.Georgia came under discussion; likewise also Philadelphia. And again it was the Jews who managed a loophole, which had giventhem freedom following the Revolutionary War, so, they schemed to make slave trading legal.One had but to read the names of those persons living in Philadelphia who were requesting the elimination of existing lawsregarding the slavery dealing. They were: the Jews Sandiford, Lay, Woolman, Solomon, and Benezet. That explained it all! But let usturn back to the slave ship "Abigail." Its captain--and we are reading from his ship's books--did a profitable business. He sold all ofhis Negroes in Virginia, invested some of the money in tobacco, rice, sugar, and cotton, and went on to Newport where he depositedhis wares.We learn from Captain Freedman's books that the "Abigail" was a small ship and could only accommodate 56 people. Hemanaged, however, to clear from one trip 6,621 dollars, which he in turn delievered to the owner of the ship: one Aaron Lopez.The staggering amounts of money acquired by the Jew ship owners and slavery dealers is better illustrated when weemphasize the many years in which this sale and purchase of human flesh was practiced. Prior to 1661, all of the Colonies had lawsprohibiting slavery. It was in that year that the Jews had become powerful enough to bring about the repeal of these laws, and slaverybegan in earnest.The Jews had discovered that the Colonists needed additional manpower to help them clear their fields for planting, helpingin the construction of dwellings, and in general to help with harvesting their crops. This was particularly true of the Southern stateswhich we have referred to earlier. The Southerners had vast tracts of rich soil suitable for rice, cotton, tobacco and cane sugar. At first,impoverished Europeans were recruited. English prison doors were opened and finally prisoners ot war from England and Hollandwere brought to the Colonies, made to work until they had paid the cost of transporting them by ship and then set free.It doesn't take a Jew long to discover what his brothers are doing, so a group of Jews settled in Charleston, South Carolina,where they set up distilleries for making rum and whiskey. They, too, learned that they could trade with the natives on the West Coastof Africa for ivory, and several ships were purchased and sent to Africa, trading the usual glass beads and other cheap ornaments forivory, which, however, took up but little space on board ship. It occurred to these Jew traders that they could supply the plantations inthe South with 'Black ivory', needed under swampy and malarial conditions which European labor could not tolerate without sickness,and which would not only fill the holds of their ships, but bring enormous profits. (This same group had earlier tried selling Indians asslaves but they found them completely unsatisfactory, as the Indians would not tolerate this type of work.) Thus, another segment ofthe slave trading had become active and profitable out of Charleston, South Carolina. Several shiploads of Black slaves were sent bythe Dutch West Indies Company to Manhattan.During this time there were a number of plantation owners established in the West Indies and two Jews, Eyrger and SayUer,with strong Rothschild connections in Spain, formed an agency called ASIENTO, which later operated in Holland and England. Itwas through these connections that Jews in Holland and England exerted influence and both of these connections cooperated inhelping the Jews provide Black Slaves for the Colonists.With the yearly capture and transport of one million Black slaves it is not difficult to figure that from 1661 to 1774 (onehundred thirteen years) approximately one hundred ten million slaves had been removed from their native land. About ten percent, orELEVEN MILLION, Black slaves reached the Colonies alive.We have talked about the small ship "Abigail" which could accommodate only 56 people and yet the profits per trip wereenormous, with little or no investment. There were many other ships but we will concentrate here on only a few, such as the "LaFortuna," "Hannah," "Sally" or the "Venue" which made very great profits. The "La Fortuna," by the way, transported approximately217 slaves on each trip. The owner cleared not less than $41,438.00 from such a trip. These were dollars which the slave dealers'could keep'. And these were dollars of value which would buy a great deal in return.When one considers that the Jews of Newport owned about 300 slave-transporting ships, active without interruption, dockingat Newport-Africa, Charleston, (or Virginia), one can approximate the tremendous earnings which made their way to Jewish shipowners. Indeed, the Jews admit, that of the 600 ships, leaving Newport harbor into all the world, "at least half of them" went their wayto Africa, and we know what these ships going to Africa "were seeking."The fact that Aaron Lopez had control of over more than half of the combined deals in the Colonies of Rhode Island, withNewport, is well-known. The well-known Rabbi Morris A. Gutstein, in his book, The Story of the Jews in Newport, attempts toremove these facts, maintaining that there is not any evidence that the Jews were connected with the Slave Trade. It is thereforeimperative to prove that the Jew was indeed connected with the slave trading. Especially so since this rabbi insists they had madegreat contributions, and how very "blessed" their residence became for the city of Newport. Surely Morris A. Gutstein will grant uspermission to present the facts which he was unable to find.Turning to one report of the Chamber of Commerce of the "Rhode Island Colony" in the year 1764, we find, for instance,that in the year 1723 "a few merchants in Newport" devised the idea to send their Newport rum to the coast of Africa. It developedinto such a great export that in the matter of a few years "several thousand (hogsheads)" of rum went that way. To which purpose didthis rum serve?The Carnegie Institute in Washington, D.C., presents and makes public authentic documents entitled "Documents Illustrativeof the History of the Slave Trade in America". We wish to present a few facts from this particular collection of original documentsand scrutinize them at closer range, and not at all to prove the heretofore Rabbi Morris A. Gutstein in error. In this collection of thefirst American institute of learning, we evaluate the capital "Rhode Island" which contributed the main share of the publicdocumentation regarding the Slave trading. Here we find documented the recipients of the numerous shipping letters, also letters tothe Slave dealers, and correspondence to the ship's captains, who were about 15% Jews, living in Newport. Among these we find, forinstance, the Jew Isaac Elizar. He wrote a letter to Captain Christopher Champlin on February 6, 1763, saying he would like to be anagent for a load of slaves. Then follows the Jew Abraham Pereira Mendez, and one of the main slave dealers, Jacob Rod Rivera-thefather-in-law of Aaron Lopez. And then there is Aaron Lopez, himself, and many, many more other Jews. Although we haveconsidered Aaron Lopez several times, the size of this documented treatise limits us, and we cannot describe all of the writersconcerned in the Slavery Dealing correspondence, their names and the special dates--rather, we wish to study the documentation ofthe 'Carnegie Institute' itself--keeping Aaron Lopez in mind. We wish to see what in the main this Jew was pursuing and what hisbusiness was. This is due to the fact that Rabbi Morris A. Gutstein presents him as a "lofty and fine civilian of Newport" who was sogenerous and even "made contributions to welfare."In a great number of published original unprejudiced writings in the Carnegie Institute, we find that Aaron Lopez pursued atremendous commerce in rum with the African coast in exchange for slaves. These irrefutable facts are as follows:June 22, 1764, a letter by Captain William Stead to Aaron Lopez.July 22, 1765, a letter by Aaron Lopez to Captain Nathaniel Briggs.July 22, 1765, a letter to Captain Abraham All.February 4, 1766, a letter to Captain William Stead by Aaron Lopez.March 7, 1766, a letter by Captain William Stead to Aaron Lopez.February 20, 1766, a letter by Aaron Lopez to Captain William Stead.October 8, 1766, a letter by Captain William Stead to Aaron Lopez.February 9, 1767, a letter by Captain William Stead to Aaron Lopez.Aside from that, there are similar statements out of letters by Aaron Lopez in the original, which he directed to the CaptainsHenry Cruger, David Mill, Henry White, Thomas Dolbeare, and William Moore. Indeed, one letter by Captain William Moore toAaron Lopez & Company, is particularly revealing, and of special mention at this point. We wish to remark on the main contents ofthis letter in which Captain Moore writes: "I wish to advise you that your ship 'Ann' docked here night before last with 112 slaves,consisting of 35 men, 16 large youths, 21 small boys, 29 women, 2 grown girls, 9 small girls, and I assure you this is such a one rumcargo(rum in exchange for slaves) which I have not yet encountered, among the entire group there may be five to which one couldtake exception."The date of the above letter was November 27, 1773. We have not yet concluded, because of lack of space, the excerpts andgrateful compilations made available by the "Camegie Institute."On November 29, 1767, the Jew Abraham Pereira Mendez--who had been cheated by one of his kind--from Charleston,where he had journeyed to better control his Black cargo, wrote Aaron Lopez at Newport:"These Negroes, which Captain Abraham All delivered to me, were in such poor condition due to the poor transportation, that I wasforced to sell 8 boys and girls for a mere 27 (pounds), 2 other for 45 (pounds) and two women each for 35 (pounds)." (No doubt,English money)Abraham Pereia Mendez was very angry and accused Aaron Lopez of "cheating" him. This letter delineates to us that thisgenerous and fine citizen of Newport was insatiable in his greed for money. This is what caused the Rabbi Morris A. Gutstein topresent this nobleman, Aaron Lopez, to pursue his objectionable methods. Negroes presented to him but a commodity.In all of the letters which the "Carnegie Institute" published, it stresses the lack of human sympathy for the poor Negroslaves. This lack of feeling and compassion for the abused and pitiful Blacks at the hands of their Jewish dealers, can be read out ofthe diary of a captain who manned a ship owned by Aaron Lopez. The entrees concern a trip from the African Coast to Charleston.Moreover, they are authentic documents, published by the "Camegie Institute" in Washington, D.C., calling attention to anorganization which had heretofore known little or nothing about; neither had they encountered further publicity in books ornewspapers. Therefore, it is not to be wondered at that the facts of the leading share of American Jews in the slave trade could bepointed out as a monopoly, and unknown to the non-Jewish Americans, including the great masses of people all over the world.Others, however, acquainted with the facts, had good reason to remain painfully quiet.The captain of another ship, the "Othello" among other things, makes the following entries in his diary:February 6th: One man drowned in the process of loading.March 18th: Two women went overboard because they had not been locked up.April 6th: One man dead with Flux. (No doubt an illness.)April 13th: One woman dead with Flux.May 7th: One man dead with Flux.June 16th: One man dead by Kap Henry.June 21st: One man dead by James Fluss.July 5th: One woman dead with fever.July 6th: One girl, sick for two months, died.This vessel was on its way for five months. What terrible and unspeakable suffering was the lot of these millions of Blacks,who were torn with brutal force from their friendly African huts, jammed together, like animals below deck, and then sold with lessconcern than selling a head of cattle. Small wonder that ten of them died, being purchased for just a few dollars, and then sold for thesum of $2,000.00.Some Negroes managed, through insurrection, to gain control of one or another ship and turned it around, with full sails,toward their African home. The crew of one slave ship, "Three Friends" for instance, tortured their Black cargo in such a manner thatthe Negroes reciprocated in a bloody rebellion. They killed the captain and the entire crew and threw the dead overboard. They thensailed back to Africa where they had barely escaped their hard-won freedom.A similar fate struck the slave ship "Amistad". Among the slaves was the son of an enemy tribal chief. Once the ship wasunder way, he schemed with his compatriots to attack the ship's crew. Following a bloody battle, they managed to capture the captain.The Negro prince forced him to turn back to Africa, then in the evening, under cover of darkness, he changed his course, zigzaggedfor months untfl he came close to the American coast, and encountered a government ship. This took place in the year 1839 whenslave trading was already forbidden and illegal.The Negro slaves were freed and the captain punished. These sea voyages were not without danger when they had Blackcargo, which accounts for the fact that the Jews most always engaged non-Jewish captains.The slave dealers preferred to remain in their offices and counted the fat winnings following each journey, such as AaronLopez, who left his heirs one of the largest fortunes in the New England era.When reviewing the documented facts contained herein, it is important that one always remembers that it was a lucky captainwho did not lose more than 9 out of 19 slaves on the return trip.It is equally important to remember that these poor Black creatures had to lie in human excrement for the entire trip. Think ofit! No wonder sickness and disease took such a high toll.Remember the figures: approximately one hundred ten million Black people were captured and removed from their homelandin Africa. Only ELEVEN MILLION of these Black slaves reached the Colonies alive.And the Jews still talk about the Germans and Hitler and how six million Jews were exterminated during World War II. Thisis the greatest LIE ever perpetrated upon the people of the world-whereas the story of the poor Black slaves is documented.Documented with TRUTH. The evidence is still available for the people of the world to see.The "Carnegie Institute of Technology" is located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.As this document is distributed, eventually reaching the hands of the Jew, the evidence will probably be removed anddestroyed until finally all documentation is removed which is damaging to the Jew. The Jews have been engaged in this practice forcenturies. Truth, however--truth which bears fact cannot remain covered or hidden forever--and more truths are being disclosed bythose of us who intend to free America of these sons of the devil--the Jews.The published documentation contained herein was obtained from the Carnegie Institute of Learning, presently known as"The Carnegie Institute of Technology. "The following is a partial of the slave ships owned by Jews:'Abigail' by Aaron Lopez, Moses Levy and Jacob Franks.'Crown' by Isaac Levy and Nathan Simpson.'Nassau'by Moses Levy. 'Four Sisters' by Moses I.evy.'Anne & Eliza' by Justus Bosch and John Abrams.'Prudent Betty' by Henry Cruger and Jacob Phoenix.'Hester' by Mordecai and David Gomez.'Elizabeth' by David and Mordecai Gomez.'Antigua' by Nathan Marston and Abram Lyell.'Betsy'by Wm. DeWoolf.'PoUy'by James DeWoolf.'White Horse' by Jan de Sweevts.'Expedition' by John and Jacob Rosevelt.'Charlotte' by Moses and Sam Levy and Jacob Franks.'Caracoa' by Moses and Sam Levy.Slave-runners, also owned by Jews were the 'La Fortuna', the 'Hannah', the 'Sally', and the 'Venue'.Some of the Jews of Newport and Charleston who were engaged in the distillery or slavery trade, or both, were: IsaacGomez, Hayman Levy, Jacob Malhado, Naphtaly Myers, David Hart, Joseph Jacobs, Moses Ben Franks, Moses Gomez, Isaac Dias,Benjamin Levy, David Jeshuvum, Jacob Pinto, Jacob Turk, Daniel Gomez, James Lucana, Jan de Sweevts, Felix (cha-cha) de Souza(known as the 'Prince of Slavers' and second only to Aaron Lopez), Simeon Potter, Isaac Elizer, Jacob Rod, Jacol) Itodrigues Rivera,Haym Isaac Carregal, Abraham Touro, Moses Hays, Moses Lopez, Judah Touro, Abrtham Mendes and Abraham All.Of some 600 ships leaving the port of Newport, more than 300 were engaged in the slave trade. A typical cargo of one ship,'La Fortuna', was 217 slaves which cost about $4,300 and sold for $41,438.00.Only about 10% of the slave ship captains were Jews, not wanting to subject themselves to the rigors of the 6-month journey.They preferred to stay at home and continue their distillery operations which continued to supply rum and whiskey to the Indians formany years at a very great profit.REFERENCES DOCUMENTATIONElizabeth Donnan, 4 Vols. Documents Illustrative of the History of the Slave Trade to America, Washington, D.C., 1930-1935."Carnegie Institute of Technology," Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.Adventures of an African Slaver, by Malcolm Cowley, 1928. Published by Albert and Charles Bori, New York.The Story of the Jews in Newport, by Rabbi Morris A. Gutstein.The Jew Discovem America, by Cthmar Krainz.The International Jew, by Henry Ford.The Plot Against the Church, by Maurice Pinay.Protocol for World Conquest, 1956, by The Central Conference of American Rabbis.Behind Communism, by Frank L. BrittonWe cannot undertake even this brief history of the modern Jew without taking note of a phenomenon which his confoundedGentile societies for twenty centuries. This is the ability of the Jewish people to collectively retain their identity despite centuries ofexposure to Christian civilization. To any student of Judaism, or to the Jews themselves, this phenomenon is partly explained by thefact that Judaism is neither mainly a religion, nor mainly a raciai matter, nor yet is it simply a matter of nationality. Rather it is allthree, it is a kind of trinity. Judaism is best described as a nationality built on the twin pillars of race and religion. All this is closelyrelated to another aspect of Judaism, namely the persecution myth. Since first appearing in history, we find the Jews propagating theidea that they are an abused and persecuted people, and this idea is, and has always been, central in Jewish thinking. The myth ofpersecution is the adhesive and cement of Judaism: without it Jews would have long since ceased to exist, their racial-religiousnationality notwithstanding.It is a fact that the Jewish people have suffered numerous hardships in the course of their history, but this is true of otherpeoples too. The chief difference is that the Jews have kept score. We Must repeat--they have kept score--they have made a traditionof persecution.A casual slaughter of thousands of Chriestians is remembered by no one in 50 years, but a disability visited upon a few Jewsis preserved forever in Jewish histories. And they tell their woes not only to themselves, but to a sympathetic world as well.

Related questions

Do all electrodes have a coating called flux?

No not all electodes have a flux, in some cases such as certain M.I.G welding the electrode resemble bare wire because it has no flux?

What is the difference betweenTig wire stick welder?

a stick welder needs to replace his electrode regularly and the flux coating is on the outside while a tig machine constantly feeds the wire and the flux is produced by a filler gas

What type of flux used in E6013 Electrode?


What is the meaning of e7018-1 welding eletrod?

E stands for Electrode,70 stands for tensile strength,1 stands for position of welding that is for all positions 8 stands for flux coating.

What is the outer coating on a welding rod?

The flux is the outer coating on a welding rod. The flux is a very important part of the welding rod.

When welding the flux on an electrode?

shielded metal are welding is also called

What is the meaning of welding electrode E7018?

E = Electrode70 = 70 thousand tensile strength1 = All position welding8 = lime-floridecoating,iron powder,bonded with sodium silicate(Flux)

Weld backing is used with a process that uses a separate flux and electrode to?


An E71T-1 electrode designation is working for which welding process?

Flux core arc welding

How do you repair stainless steel repair weld?

Use special flux cored electrode without purging dam.

What is the difference in welding rods for ac welders and dc welders?

The difference in the ac/ dc , or polarity of welding rods is in the makeup of the flux coating , or the alloy of the metal, and in the case of SMAW ( Shielded metal arc welding ) rods , which have a flux coating, are usually marked on the base of the rod.

What are the functions of the flux ingredients?

to remove oxides to the surface being soldered