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There are two main reasons for this:

1. The US uses a electoral system based on single member districts with a plurality vote. this means that in each electoral district there is only one winning candidate, and that winning candidate is the one with the highest number of votes (a plurality). This system favours large parties as they have the resources and personnel to support elections in each district and in the US generally the Democrat and Republican parties are the most well known. Smaller parties candidates may be able to win a share of the votes, but to overcome one of the larger parties in any one district is extremely difficult.

In other countries, different electoral system are sometimes used, including Proportional Representation electoral systems (PR). PR electoral system elect more than one candidate for each district - sometimes even more than one hundred! This means that even smaller parties who only get a small share of the vote can still win seats (If a small party wins 10 percent of the vote in a district of 100 members, then that party will receive 10 seats.) Different electoral systems make it easier for smaller parties to gain seats.

2. The second reason is historical development of a political system. In the US, the Republican and Democrat parties are heavily institutionalized to the extent that they are often seen as the only two options. This is supported by the electoral system, but also by the unique historical development of US politics. In other countries, different political development has resulted in more political parties!

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Q: Why don't the other countries have the same number of political parties as the us?
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All of the above


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