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Macedon, a non-Greek kingdom at the fringe the Greek states of mainland Greece (there were also Greek states in western Turkey and southern Italy) became the dominant state of mainland Greece. Alexander the great, a king of Macedon, took over the Persian Empire, taking with his troops from allied Greek states. The Greek troops often sided with the Persians, instead of fighting with Alexander because they despised the Macedonians, whom they regarded as barbarians (a derogatory term for foreigners in Greek). The Persian Empire stretched as far east as and Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan (in Central Asia) Afghanistan and the Hindus River in Pakistan. Alexander pushed beyond the River Hindus, defeated Porus, King of Paurava (an Indian kingdom in present day Pakistani Punjab), made Porus an ally, and incorporated this hitherto unconquered kingdom into his dominions.

Alexander the Great died young (he was only 33). His Macedonian empire fell apart as his generals fought each other. At the end of these civil wars its territories were partitioned into four separate states. The Seleucid Empire stretched from parts of central and eastern Turkey to Alexander's easternmost conquests. The Seleucid state and the other state partitioned out of Alexander's conquered territories (the Ptolemaic Kingdom, which covered Egypt, Cyprus and parts of Turkey) became Greek states as they assumed a Greek character.

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The Achaemenid Empire otherwise known as the Persian Empire from 550 BCE to 330 BCE.

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The Trojans

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Q: How far east did the Greek Empire expand?
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