cultural- more people move west since it's easier to on a train-more big cities appearing in the West and Midwest, adventurous spirit in the States as people hear stories of the West, people embrace Manifest Destiny because of how prosperous the nation is getting with these railroads
economic- cities near railroads prospered, most cities that weren't failed, food grown in the Midwest could now be transported to large urban areas like New York where food was harder to find, therefore reducing the price of food; new industries regarding railroads like coal and iron got big very fast and gave people jobs, more people were moving west because it's easier, so land prices go up
political- many people oppose government subsidies on railroads, so different parties emerge regarding that, Manifest Destiny embraced by more people seeing the good expansion and railroads do for the economy
social- people were able to go on longer and farther vacations, able to get items not readily available in their areas like fresh meat, vegetables, and gold, people were able to get work farther away from home, more people decide to turn to subsistence farming because its so easy to move now
environmental- pollution from coal burning, overgrazing because of railroads allowing cowboys to raise cattle in Midwest, overcutting lumber since more and more people are moving West, habitat damage when land is cut through to make way for railroads, burning of prairie to turn it into suitable wheat-growing land causes land to lose minerals and vital nutrients
The railroads had a huge beneficial effect on ranching and farming in the west by offering a cheap, handy, long range method of transporting crops and animals easterly to the population centers.
When the railroads were completed, some nativists threatened railroad owners with harm if they hired Chinese people. This resulted in some of the railroads in the west hiring more workers out of Mexico.
Railroads allowed raw materials to travel to the East, and manufactured goods to travel to the West.
The plains west of the Mississippi are best for farming and ranching. This area is relatively flat and productive, provided there is sufficient water .
There are different economic and social factors that changed the west after the civil war. The slaves claimed huge parcels of land where they engaged in farming activities. The small white farmers were pushed to poverty by the war.
The railroads were blasted through rock faces and things like that so obviously that changed. Also shanty towns sprung up along the railroads. Shanty towns are towns that sprung up quickly and were almost always wooden, so again this changed. Ranching then changed the landscape as they popped up everywhere when cattle drives began to slow a bit. I hope this is what you are looking for!
By providing a cheap and fast route for the products (raised by farmers) to get to market.
Railroads opened the West to the East and reduced traffic on the roads.
they made ranching easier
The Mexicanos were descendants of Spain. Their ancestors had come from Mexico and settled the American Southwest long before white American settlers arrived looking for opportunities in ranching, farming, and mining.
Railroads run in all directions.