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Three ways governments are classified are:

  1. the geographic distribution of governmental power with the state
  2. the relationship between the legislative ( lawmaking) ant the executive (law-executing branch of government
  3. the number of persons who can take part in the governing process
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9y ago
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  1. 1.the geographic distribution of governmental power with the state

  2. 2.the relationship between the legislative ( lawmaking) ant the executive (law-executing branch of 3_ways_governments_are_classified
  3. 3.the number of person who can take part in the governing process
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  1. the geographic distribution of governmental power with the state
  2. the relationship between the legislative ( lawmaking) ant the executive (law-executing branch of government
  3. the number of person who can take part in the governing process
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8y ago

There are numerous different types of regimes. The below include some of the more prominent forms of government, but there may be some forms that are not listed. Additionally, some regimes may fit into multiple categories because they have distinctive elements for each case.

The list:

1) MONARCHIES: Hereditary Transmission of Power

1a) Constitutional Monarchies:
There are some Kingdoms where the King is constrained by a constitution and requires a Parliament to pass laws. However, the strength of these Parliaments can range from weak (in Constitutional Monarchies like Jordan and Morocco) to strong (in Constitutional Monarchies like Britain and Spain). In the case of strong Parliaments, the King is often relegated to a role as Head of State and has minimal involvement with the process of law-making or enforcement.

1b) Absolute Kingdoms, Sultanates, and Emirates:There is no difference between a Kingdom and Sultanate except that the rulers have different names (King vs. Sultan). An Emirate is similar to a Kingdom but takes up less space (i.e. Principality). The Arab World has an impressive number of Absolute Monarchs (such as those who rule various Emirates like Dubai, Abu Dhabi, and Qatar, those who rule Kingdoms like Saudi Arabia and Bahrain, and those who rule Sultanates like Oman). These monarchs control their people through direct edicts and typically run a nepotistic government. There is no constitution or other document that asserts rights contrary to those of the King.

2) DEMOCRACIES: Power as a Result of Elections

2a) Direct Democracies: Direct Democracies, which compose a number of limited initiatives, such as exist in some Swiss cantons, are governments where the individual citizens vote directly on issues, without a Congress or other indirect form of election. The difficulty and complexity of modern government have effectively made direct democracy impossible.

2b) Presidential Republics:
Presidential Republics, which include the United States and large parts of Latin America, are governments where all citizens over a certain age can vote for political parties that sit in Congress as well as voting for a President who is the chief executive. In Presidential Republics, there is a clear delineation between the legislative and executive branches.

2c) Parliamentary Democracy:
Most European countries (including the constitutional monarchies) have governments where all citizens over a certain age can vote for political parties that occupy seats in a Parliament and create a ruling coalition. This coalition appoints the Prime Minister and takes over the affairs of governance between the fair and non-fraudulent elections.

2d) Illiberal Democracies: Russia and many Third-World Nations were Liberal Democracies on paper with guaranteed voting rights, freedoms of speech and religion, constitutions that bind the authority of the Executive. In nearly every regime that this describes (like Putin's Russia, Erdogan's Turkey, Saddam Hussein's Iraq, Mubarak's Egypt) these paper rights and limitations on paper did not exist. These rulers used an apparent mechanism of democracy to perpetuate a dictatorship.

2e) Compromised or Confessional Governments: In situations with various powerful ethnic groups like Lebanon (with its Maronite, Shiite, and Sunni communities) and Iraq with its (Shiite, Sunni Arab, and Kurd communities) there are democracies which guarantee certain positions in the government to a certain ethnic group so that one group cannot dictate policies for all the other groups. This often results in fights over census taking as that might lessen a particular group's strength and actual group on group violence to intimidate voters of one ethnic group to vote for a candidate that also supports whatever objective would help the perpetrators who are a different ethnicity. This results in very fragile agreements.

3) COMMUNIST STATES: Power Expressed Through the Ideology of Communism

3a) Traditional Communist States:
Traditional Communism requires an autocratic government ruled by the Communist Party, but primarily guided by individual politicians. The government is required to collectivize private property and redistribute wealth. Stalin's USSR and Cuba are often seen as examples of traditional communism.

3b) Leninist Communist States:
China and Vietnam are Leninist Communist States. Leninist Communism is the political theory that a single party called the Communist Party rules the government and governs all affairs as opposed to individual politicians. Although the single party in a Leninist Communist State is the Communist Party, the party need not practice Communist political theory. In both China and Vietnam, there is a state-directed, right-wing economic and political theory.

3c) Dynastic Communist States: This is a unique category for North Korea which is a Communist State, but has succession in leadership passing along a dynastic line like a monarchy. Some consider Dynastic Communism to be part of the Absolute Monarchy category, because of the similarities, while others argue that since the leader of a Dynastic Communist State does not use royal titles that the state is not a proper monarchy.

4) AUTOCRACY AND DICTATORSHIP: Power Attained through Physical Power

4a) Authoritarian States:
An Authoritarian State is a state where all or most of the nation's power is concentrated in the executive leader, who is usually seen as a violent or brutal person. Probably the best example of an authoritarian state is Belarus, which is ruled by Alexander Lukashenko, a ruler that is so "beloved" that he once had a 112% approval rating.

4b) Enlightened Despotic States: The only difference between an Authoritarian State and an Enlightened Despotic State is that the leader is actually seen positively by his people. Such dictators are few and far between, but the most recent one was Lee Kuan Yew of Singapore, who was well-liked and respected for making Singapore a jewel in Southeast Asia.

4c) Fascist and Nazi States:
Fascist States, of which Nazi Germany was a subset, are states built on a strong traditional, militaristic, and corporatist outlook. Fascist States are ruled by a charismatic dictator and his political party. There is an embrace of strict legal doctrine and segregation, the use of violence in the civilian sphere to enforce the law and to discourage the intellectual, prompting of violent conquests, hostility to modernity, xenophobia and hatred of minorities, the use of national propaganda to promote irridentism towards past empires, sexual repression, and the arts and literature are seen as effeminate and degenerate. In terms of Corporatism, Fascists allow businesses to function as independently-owned monopolies, whose monopoly is protected by the state in exchange for permitting government direction. Some individuals also consider Islamism (Political Islam) to be a form of Fascism.

4d) Totalitarian States:
A Totalitarian State is one in which all aspects of life and society, both public and private, are controlled by the dictator. The power is concentrated into the leader and the bureaucracy of agencies that are loyal to him, such as the army, the secret police, propaganda ministries, education ministries, and other exertions of control. Any legislatures or courts are sublimated to the will of the totalitarian leaders as are all forms of speech and communication. Both Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union were considered totalitarian states.

5) PLUTOCRACY:
Power Attained by Wealth

5a) Oligarchies:
These are groups of individuals, like a nobility or upper class, who are not elected, but exert direct political power based on their wealth and social position. They may convene in chambers to come up with new laws, but there is no formal structure of government outside of their relationships.

5b) Corporatist States: These are states owned and run by Corporations in that the Corporation sets out the laws that the government will pass and enforce or the Corporation is the government, allowing the direct imposition of company policies on the citizenry. A number of Leftist US Citizens argue that the United States has become an indirect Corporatist State because of the level of influence that corporations have on society.

6) THEOCRACY:
Power Derived from Religious Authority

6a) Direct Theocracy:
A direct theocracy is a country that is directly ruled by either (1) a person who claims to be a god or (2) a person who claims to be able to determine the will of the gods. In this case, the religious authority is himself writing the laws of the country and enforcing them. A version of type one would be ancient Egypt, where the Pharaoh was considered to be a god, and who ruled based on this religious right. A version of type two would be the Islamic Republic of Iran. Iran is a theocracy because the Ayatollahs are all clergy of the Twelver Shiite Islam religion. Although Iran has an elected parliament, who can run in the elections (and often the results) are controlled by the non-elected Supreme Council of Ayatollahs.

6b) Indirect Theocracy:
An indirect theocracy is a country where direct power is in the hands of a non-religious authority, but incredibly amounts of power to determine policy come from (1) a person who claims to be a god or (2) a person who claims to be able to determine the will of the gods. The difference here is that the religious authorities are not actually ones writing the government's laws, but instead, have a strong influence on how they are to be determined. Saudi Arabia is considered an indirect theocracy because it is actually absolute monarchy where the Saudi King does not have religious authority, but the Wahhabi Councils, which do have religious authority, have strong influence with the Saudi King and in public policy.

7) MILITARY RULE: Power Concentrated in the Military

7a) Military Juntas:
Military Juntas are governments where the military has come to power and proceeded to be the governing authority. Usually, this happens by way of a coup d'etat. As opposed to the leaders of Illiberal Democracies, even the Constitutions of their countries (which are useless) do not legitimate them in the way that Illiberal Democratic Dictators are legitimated on paper. The military controls all branches of the government, with courts being overseen by Military Tribunals. Myanmar is a perfect example of a Military Junta-ruled state.

7b) Caudillo-States:
Caudillo-States are organized as Military-Run Governments with the leaders officially styling themselves as Presidents but retaining their military affiliation. The Caudillo-State is a type of Military Junta with the military ruler acquiring a cult of personality and the "air" of legitimacy. While the term is linguistically Spanish and developed from references to individuals like Peron and Franco in Spanish-speaking countries (Argentina and Spain), it has been apportioned to a lesser degree to refer to military juntas led outside of the Spanish-speaking world with this cult of personality issue, especially in the Arab World, like General Abd el-Karim Qasim in Iraq in the 1950s-60s and Muammar Qaddafi in the 1960s-2000s.

7c) Extraterritorial Military Bases:
A number of countries have established localized regions where the laws of a foreign Metropole would apply as opposed to any colonial administration or local-controlled government. This typically applied in military bases and facilities in key coastal areas. Some such extant regions like this today are the British bases of Akotiri and Dhelika in Cyprus and the US base at Guantanamo Bay in Cuba, but they used to be far more common. Law was directed and led by military leaders of the Metropole Country who ran the facility.

8) IMPERIALLY CONTROLLED REGIONS:
Power in Multistate Conglomerations

8a) Imperial Metropoles: The Imperial Metropole is the center of the empire and usually has one of the forms of government listed in Parts 1-7. The Metropole also exerts the primary rule over other parts of the Empire and would often be the center for the direction of raw products and the center for government investment.

8b) Colonies, Protectorates, and Mandates:Colonies were distant territories under the direct control of a foreign sovereign, protectorates were locally governed countries with foreign military supervision and protection, and mandates were territories that were protected by a foreign government while the local peoples were to be cultivated in such a way that they could become independent. In reality, all of them more or less fit under the definition of a colony and were bitterly resisted by the indigenous peoples. In the New World, local peoples were effectively prevented from being part of the governing class, which was restricted to full-blood colonizers. In the Old World, local peoples also had minimal participation in the government, although since minorities were permitted to participate, the participation of local minorities increased under these governments.

8c) Imperial Governates: As opposed to the more traditional Western European system of Metropoles and Colonies, the Empires of Eastern Europe, of Asia, and of Africa (Russia, Ottoman Empire, Persia, China, Mughal Empire, etc.) were primarily run by a system of Metropoles and Governates. A governate has local vested authorities but is generally inferior to the government of the Metropole. Governates often come under suspicion and increased surveillance from the Metropole government if the territory is distant from the Metropole and/or has a different majority ethnic group. Conversely, in declining Empires, the Metropole can often not exert as much influence over the distant territories, leading to increased autonomy and eventually, de facto independence. Even in those cases, there was little representation for the will of the local people, who were instead required to be loyal to the empire as a whole.


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15y ago

Idiots, thieves and hypocrits

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15y ago

communistic socalistic capitolistic

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10y ago

Unitary, confederation, and federal.

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